Presumably fires objects further than a normal catapult because of its added wings
- "There were winged catapults and Fanged Frisbees, some still with enough life in them to hover halfheartedly over the mountains of other forbidden items; there were chipped bottles of congealed potions, hats, jewels, cloaks; there were what looked like dragon eggshells, corked bottles whose contents still shimmered evilly, several rusting swords, and a heavy, bloodstained axe."
- —The Room of Hidden Things[src]
A winged catapult is a catapult with wings which allows it to fly.
There seem to be some in the Room of Requirement when it is called the Room of Hidden Things. They are described as having "enough life in them to hover halfheartedly over the mountains of other forbidden items" also located in the Room. It is unknown who put them in there or if anyone ever retrieved it. However, it is likely to have been destroyed during the Battle of Hogwarts when the Room of Requirement was set on fire by Vincent Crabbe's Fiendfyre spell.