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{{Spell_infobox
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{{Spell infobox
 
|name=Patronus Charm
 
|name=Patronus Charm
|image=[[File:Harry Potters' Patronus.jpg|250px|]]
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|image=[[File:Prongs.png|250px]]
|incantation=''Expecto Patronum'' (ecks-PEK-toh pa-TRO-num)
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|incantation=''Expecto Patronum''<ref name="PA12">{{POA}} - Chapter 12 (''The Patronus'')</ref><br/>(ex-PEK-toh pa-TRO-num)<ref name="PAf">{{POAF}}</ref>
|type=[[Charm]]
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|type=[[Charm]]<ref name="PA12"/>
|hand=Point wand at Dark creature
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|hand=[[File:Expecto Patronum movement.png|70px]]
|light=Silver-white
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|light=Silver<ref name="PA12"/>
|effect=Conjures a Patronus or spirit guardian<ref name="Spirit Guardian">[http://www.jkrowling.com/textonly/en/faq_view.cfm?id=99 "(the Order of the Phoenix members are) the only wizards who know how to use their ''spirit guardians'' in this way" - JK's official site (text only), accessed 30/7/2011]</ref>.
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|effect=Conjures a spirit guardian<ref name="JKR">[http://web.archive.org/web/20120208051452/http://www.jkrowling.com/textonly/en/faq_view.cfm?id=99 JKR Official Site] (Text only, accessed 8 February, 2012 via the Wayback Web Archive)</ref>
}}
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|creator=}}
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{{Quote|This ancient and mysterious charm conjures a magical guardian, a projection of all your most positive feelings. The Patronus Charm is difficult, and many witches and wizards are unable to produce a full, corporeal Patronus, a guardian which generally takes the shape of the animal with whom they share the deepest affinity. You may suspect, but you will never truly know what form your Patronus will take until you succeed in conjuring it.|[[Miranda Goshawk]]|Wonderbook: Book of Spells}}
 
{{Quote|This ancient and mysterious charm conjures a magical guardian, a projection of all your most positive feelings. The Patronus Charm is difficult, and many witches and wizards are unable to produce a full, corporeal Patronus, a guardian which generally takes the shape of the animal with whom they share the deepest affinity. You may suspect, but you will never truly know what form your Patronus will take until you succeed in conjuring it.|[[Miranda Goshawk]]|Wonderbook: Book of Spells}}
   
The '''Patronus Charm''' is a [[charm]] that evokes a partially-tangible, positive energy force known as a '''Patronus''' (pl. Patronuses<ref>http://www.accio-quote.org/themes/therules.htm</ref>). Patronuses are also called ''spirit guardians''<ref>[http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2005/0705-itv-coad.htm "(the Patrons Charm) creates the Patronus, it creates a kind of spirit guardian in a way. And that's partly because of what it does. It's the protector, and you could protect yourself and other people that you cared about with a Patronus" - JK on the Patronus Charm, ITV interview]</ref><ref name="Spirit Guardian"/> though this may only refer to corporeal Patronuses. It is primarily designed for defence against otherwise unbeatable Dark creatures like [[Dementor]]s and [[Lethifold]]s, though there are other uses such as messaging.
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The '''Patronus Charm''' (''Expecto Patronum'') is the most famous and one of the most powerful defensive charms known to wizardkind.<ref name="PM">''[[Pottermore]]'' - [http://www.pottermore.com/en/book3/chapter21/moment3/patronus-charm New From J. K. Rowling - Patronus Charm]</ref> It's an immensely complicated, very difficult [[spell]] that evokes a partially-tangible positive energy force known as a '''Patronus''' (pl. '''Patronuses'''<ref name="AQ">[http://www.accio-quote.org/themes/therules.htm "The Rules" at AccioQuote!]</ref>) or '''spirit guardian'''.<ref name="JKR"/> The [[charm]] was primarily designed for defence against [[Dementor]]s and [[Lethifold]]s, against which there is no other protection.<ref name="FB">''[[Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (real)]]'' (''An A-Z of Fantastic Beasts - Lethifold'')</ref> [[Albus Dumbledore]], however, invented a means of using one's Patronus as a messenger to other witches and wizards, and this is the method of communication that the [[Order of the Phoenix]] uses.<ref name="JKR"/>
   
==The Charm==
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==History==
===Casting===
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It is evident from old woodcuts and scrolls that the Patronus Charm has been used since ancient times.<ref name="WB">''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]''</ref> It therefore is unknown who created it, or when it was first invented.<ref name="WB"/> The charm also has a long association with those fighting for lofty or noble causes (those able to produce corporeal Patronuses were often elected to high office within the [[Wizengamot]] and [[Ministry of Magic]]).<ref name="PM">''[[Pottermore]]'' - [http://www.pottermore.com/en/book3/chapter21/moment3/patronus-charm New From J. K. Rowling - Patronus Charm]</ref>
{{Quote|Make it a powerful memory, the happiest you can remember. Allow it to fill you up… Just remember, your Patronus can only protect you as long as you stay focused… Think of the happiest thing you can.|[[Harry Potter]] teaching the Patronus Charm to [[Dumbledore's Army]]|Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)}}
 
   
It is apparent from old woodcuts and scrolls that the Patronus Charm has been used since ancient times.<ref name="WBoS">''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]''</ref>
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==Casting==
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{{Dialogue a-b|Harry|And how do you conjure it?|Remus|With an incantation, which will work only if you are concentrating, with all your might, on a single, very happy memory.|[[Harry Potter]] and [[Remus Lupin]]|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban}}
   
To successfully cast the spell one must muster a happy memory (the happier the memory, the more powerful and tangible the Patronus will be) and incant "''Expecto Patronum''". It is unknown if there are any other elements required in casting, such as physical gestures (aside from drawing and pointing the wand forward prior to or during incantation).
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The vast majority of witches and wizards are unable to produce any form of Patronus, and to create even an intangible one is generally considered a mark of superior magical ability.<ref name="PM">''[[Pottermore]]'' - [http://www.pottermore.com/en/book3/chapter21/moment3/patronus-charm New From J. K. Rowling - Patronus Charm]</ref>
   
The happy memory one requires when casting does not necessarily have to be a specific moment in your past. Arguably more important than content, is how the memory or thought makes you feel now. Harry Potter, for instance, is often seen to produce his more powerful Patronuses when he his merely thinking of the people he loves. Harry also often thinks of his friends Ronald Weasley and Hermione Granger and produces successful Patronuses. One time Harry also used the thought of Dolores Umbridge being sacked to produce a patronus for his Defence Against the Dark Arts O.W.L. Harry uses his love and happiness, evoked from thinking of his friends and family, to produce a patronus, rather than having to remember emotions felt in the past.
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To successfully cast the spell, one must muster the happiest memory they can think of (the happier the memory, the better the charm will work)<ref name="PA12"/> and begin drawing circles with their [[wand]] so as to [[Powering-up spells|increase the power]] of their spell.<ref name="WB"/> They must then say the [[incantation]], "''Expecto Patronum''"; the Patronus will come from the tip of the [[wand]] and can be directed towards a target by pointing one's wand at said target.<ref name="OPf">{{OOTPF}}</ref>
   
===Difficulty===
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It is possible to disguise the form one's Patronus takes, which was done both by [[Severus Snape]] to hide his [[love]] for [[Lily Evans]], and by [[Remus Lupin]], who felt it would give away his [[Werewolf|condition.]]<ref name="PM">''[[Pottermore]]'' - [http://www.pottermore.com/en-us/book3/chapter21/moment3/patronus-charm New From J. K. Rowling - Patronus Charm]</ref>
[[File:Patronusministry.jpg|thumb|266px|Harry casting his Patronus during the trio's [[Infiltration of the Ministry of Magic|escape from the Ministry]]]]The Patronus Charm is widely regarded as advanced magic (so much so that its not even taught in [[Charms (class)|Charms]] on the Hogwarts curriculum). It is a very complex [[charm]] and many qualified [[wizards|wizards and witches]] have trouble with it. In fact, Harry Potter is one of the youngest known wizards able to cast a Patronus; he was taught how to do so in early 1994 at the age of thirteen by [[Remus Lupin]]<ref name="POA">''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]''</ref>. In a [[Dumbledore's Army]] lesson, Harry taught the members how to use the charm. Some were even successful in casting a corporeal form, though Harry said this might be because there was no [[Dementor]] to make them frightened<ref name="OTP">''[[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix]]''</ref>. However, some members were later shown to be able to cast corporeal Patronuses in the presence of Dementors<ref name="DH">''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]''</ref>.
 
   
[[Amelia Bones]] and potential members of the [[D.A.]] were all very impressed when [[Harry Potter]] revealed that he could cast not only a Patronus Charm but a corporeal one to boot, which is notably more difficult than casting an incorporeal one. Given that the success of the charm is directly reliant on the caster retaining a particular mental state the Charm is more difficult to cast in emotionally trying circumstances. For instance, [[Harry Potter]], [[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]], and [[Hermione Granger]] all had difficulty casting their Patronuses when under the negative influence of [[Salazar Slytherin's Locket]], one of [[Tom Riddle|Lord Voldemort]]'s [[Horcrux]]es, and after witnessing the death of [[Fred Weasley]] in [[Battle of Hogwarts|battle]]<ref name="DH" />. This feature of the Charm is particularly unfortunate since the Charm's primary use is to defend against [[Dementor]]s, Dark creatures specifically equipped to mentally unhinge people (and hence is partly why it is regarded as such advanced, difficult magic).
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==Difficulty==
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{{Quote|That's very, ''very'' advanced magic ...|[[Hermione Granger]] on the difficulty and complexity of the [[charm]]|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban}}
   
Self-confidence may also play an important role in casting the spell. In 1994 Harry is able to cast the spell successfully, driving off a large number of Dementors (which according to Severus Snape is only achievable by a very powerful wizard) thus saving Sirius and a younger version of himself, seemingly without recalling a happy memory, when he realizes that he has already done it. Although Harry could have had a "happy memory" upon realizing that he had saved all three of their lives.
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The Patronus Charm is widely regarded as advanced magic, far beyond [[Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test|N.E.W.T.]]-level.<ref name="PA12"/> It is a very complex [[charm]] and many qualified [[wizards|wizards and witches]] have trouble with it.<ref name="PM"/> In fact, [[Harry Potter]] is one of the youngest known wizards able to cast a Patronus; he was taught how to do so in early 1994 at the age of thirteen by [[Remus Lupin|Remus Lupin.]]<ref name="POA">''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]''</ref> In a [[Dumbledore's Army]] lesson, Harry taught the members how to use the charm. Some were even successful in casting a corporeal form, though Harry said this might be because there was no [[Dementor]] to make them frightened.<ref name="OTP">''[[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix]]''</ref>  However, some members were later shown to be able to cast corporeal Patronuses in the presence of Dementors.<ref name="DH">''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]''</ref>
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[[Amelia Bones]] and potential members of the [[D.A.]] were all very impressed when [[Harry Potter]] revealed that he could cast not only a Patronus Charm but a corporeal one to boot, which is notably more difficult than casting an incorporeal one. Given that the success of the charm is directly reliant on the caster retaining a particular mental state the Charm is more difficult to cast in emotionally trying circumstances. For instance, [[Harry Potter]], [[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]], and [[Hermione Granger]] all had difficulty casting their Patronuses when under the negative influence of [[Salazar Slytherin's Locket]], one of [[Tom Riddle|Lord Voldemort]]'s [[Horcrux]]es, and after witnessing the death of [[Fred Weasley]] in [[Battle of Hogwarts|battle.]]<ref name="DH" /> This feature of the Charm is particularly unfortunate since the Charm's primary use is to defend against [[Dementor]]s, Dark creatures specifically equipped to mentally unhinge people (and hence is partly why it is regarded as such advanced, difficult magic).
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Self-confidence may also play an important role in casting the spell. In 1994 Harry is able to cast the spell successfully, driving off a large number of Dementors (which according to Severus Snape is only achievable by a very powerful wizard) thus saving Sirius and a younger version of himself, seemingly without recalling a happy memory, when he realises that he has already done it. Although Harry could have had a "happy memory" upon realising that he had saved all three of their lives.
   
 
===Worthiness===
 
===Worthiness===
[[File:Raczidian'sDemise.png|thumb|350px|left|[[Raczidian]]'s demise while trying to cast a Patronus.]]
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[[File:Raczidian'sDemise.png|thumb|left|240px|[[Raczidian]]'s demise while trying to cast a Patronus.]]
Only wizards who are "pure of heart" are able to cast Patronuses. If the Patronus Charm is attempted to be cast by a [[Dark Wizard|Dark]] or otherwise not pure-hearted [[Wizardkind|wizard]], who would otherwise be magically capable of casting one, rather than the intended effect of a spirit guardian bursting forth, a horde of maggots will be conjured from the caster's [[wand]], which will attempt to consume the caster. The first recorded instance of this happening is with the Dark Wizard [[Raczidian]].<ref>''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]'' - Chapter 5, Part 2</ref>
 
   
For this reason, [[Tom Riddle|Lord Voldemort]] and his [[Death Eaters]] were not able to cast a Patronus Charm.<ref name="">[http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2007/0730-bloomsbury-chat.html J.K. Rowling and the Live Chat, Bloomsbury.com, July 30, 2007 (2.00-3.00pm BST)] at [http://www.accio-quote.org/index.html Accio Quote!]</ref>However, Dolores Umbridge is able to produce a corporeal Patronus, despite the fact that she was considered an evil person. She was able to produce a corporeal Patronus because she was not purely evil.
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It is a general belief held by the wizarding world that only those who are pure of heart are able to cast Patronuses; this, however, is a falsehood.<ref name="PM"/> Although generally Dark witches and wizards will not try to produce a Patronus, not having any need for one, most Dark wizards will be devoured by [[maggot]]s coming from their [[wand]] and consuming the caster.<ref name="WB"/>
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For this reason, [[Tom Riddle|Lord Voldemort]] and his [[Death Eaters]] were not able to cast a Patronus Charm (not that it was necessary, as they already had the dark creatures under their control via their affinity to darkness, and would have no use for Patronuses).<ref name="">[http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2007/0730-bloomsbury-chat.html J.K. Rowling and the Live Chat, Bloomsbury.com, July 30, 2007 (2.00-3.00pm BST)] at [http://www.accio-quote.org/index.html Accio Quote!]</ref> However, some witches and wizards of questionable morals, such as [[Dolores Umbridge]], are able to produce corporeal Patronuses, Umbridge doing so despite the fact that she was considered an evil person; her wearing of [[Salazar Slytherin's Locket]], which was one of Voldemort's [[Horcruxes]], was what enhanced her strength due to her evil affinity.<ref name="PM"/> She was able to produce a corporeal Patronus due to the enhanced strength. Conversely, Draco Malfoy was unable to cast one despite his waning evil. Severus Snape is the only Death Eater capable of casting the charm, as his love for [[Lily Evans]] was his one redeeming point.
   
 
==The Patronus==
 
==The Patronus==
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===Non-corporeal===
 
===Non-corporeal===
[[File:HarryPatronusPoA.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Harry, casting a non-corporeal, shield Patronus.]]
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[[File:HarryPatronusPoA.jpg|thumb|232px|Harry, casting a non-corporeal, shield Patronus.]]
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A non-corporeal Patronus is one which does not resemble any living creature and has few distinguishing features (if any). Non-corporeal Patronuses resemble a burst of vapour or smoke without any clearly defined form shooting from the tip of the wand. While they may be partially effective at halting dementors (but not repelling them), non-corporeal Patronuses are not "fully-fledged" Patronuses, and are regarded as a more primitive or weaker version of the true Charm.
 
A non-corporeal Patronus is one which does not resemble any living creature and has few distinguishing features (if any). Non-corporeal Patronuses resemble a burst of vapour or smoke without any clearly defined form shooting from the tip of the wand. While they may be partially effective at halting dementors (but not repelling them), non-corporeal Patronuses are not "fully-fledged" Patronuses, and are regarded as a more primitive or weaker version of the true Charm.
   
While even the most advanced wizards, like the prodigious [[Severus Snape]], appear to have to use the spoken incantation ''Expecto Patronum'' to conjure a corporeal Patronus, [[Remus Lupin]] casts a non-corporeal Patronus on the [[Hogwarts Express]] as a [[Nonverbal spell]]. This suggests that only non-corporeal Patronuses can be conjured without the spoken incantation.
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===Corporeal===
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{{Dialogue a-b|Harry|What does a Patronus look like?|Lupin|Each one is unique to the wizard who conjures it.|[[Harry Potter]] and [[Remus Lupin]] discussing corporeal forms of the charm|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban}}
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[[File:Tumblr_lv13kyrMIO1qgt0vro4_250.gif|frame|left|Harry casting a Patronus Charm when he was attacked in Little Whinging.]]
   
===Corporeal===
 
 
A corporeal Patronus is one that is fully-formed, taking the shape of bright-white, translucent animal. The specific animal forms that corporeal Patronuses take vary from person to person and reflect each individual's personality.
 
A corporeal Patronus is one that is fully-formed, taking the shape of bright-white, translucent animal. The specific animal forms that corporeal Patronuses take vary from person to person and reflect each individual's personality.
   
[[File:Order_of_Phoenix_-_Patronus.gif|frame|Harry casting a Patronus Charm when he is attacked in Little Whinging]]
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Patronus forms, however, are subject to change if the caster goes through an emotional upheaval of some sort, including falling in love. For example, [[Nymphadora Tonks]]'s Patronus changed from its previous form to that of a four-legged creature which others guessed was a werewolf because then it would reflect her [[love]] of [[Remus Lupin]], himself a werewolf.<ref name="OTP" /> Another example is [[Severus Snape]], whose Patronus was that of a [[Deer|doe]], the same as [[Lily Evans]], though this may have been the case all along rather than a change from its original form, as Snape was in love with Lily for most of his life. Based on the fact that Patronuses are conjured by recalling happy memories, it stands to reason that a Patronus might change its form after one falls in love and the memories used to conjure the Patronus largely revolve around the person the caster is in love with. In addition, it seems that some couples have "complementary" Patronuses (male and female forms of the same animal), such as Lily and James Potter. It is, however, unknown if this is a coincidence or not. If a wizard is an Animagus and can summon a corporeal Patronus, the two may take the same form, as was the case for [[Minerva McGonagall]] and [[James Potter I|James Potter.]]<ref name="DH" />
   
Patronus forms, however, are subject to change if the caster goes through an emotional upheaval of some sort, including falling in love. For example, [[Nymphadora Tonks]]'s Patronus changed from its previous form to that of a four-legged creature which others guessed was a werewolf because then it would reflect her [[love]] of [[Remus Lupin]], himself a werewolf<ref name="OTP" />.Another example is [[Severus Snape]], whose Patronus was that of a [[Deer|doe]], the same as [[Lily Evans]], though this may have been the case all along rather than a change from its original form, as Snape was in love with Lily for most of his life. Based on the fact that Patronuses are conjured by recalling happy memories, it stands to reason that a Patronus might change its form after one falls in love and the memories used to conjure the Patronus largely revolve around the person the caster is in love with. In addition, it seems that some couples have "complementary" Patronuses (male and female forms of the same animal), such as Lily and James Potter. It is, however, unknown if this is a coincidence or not. If a wizard is an Animagus and can summon a corporeal Patronus, the two may take the same form, as was the case for [[Minerva McGonagall]] and [[James Potter I|James Potter]]<ref name="DH" />.
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Most Patronuses take the form of an ordinary animal, but magical creatures, such as [[Albus Dumbledore]]'s [[phoenix]] Patronus, are not uncommon. However, it is extremely rare for Patronuses to take the form of extinct animals.<ref name="WB" /> [[Hedley Fleetwood|Hedley Fleetwood's]] [[woolly mammoth]] Patronus is a notable exception.<ref name="WB" /> [[Andros the Invincible]] was the only wizard capable of casting a Patronus of a [[Giants|giant]].
   
Most Patronuses take the form of an ordinary animal, but magical creatures, such as [[Albus Dumbledore]]'s [[phoenix]] Patronus, are not uncommon. However, it is extremely rare for Patronuses to take the form of extinct animals.<ref name="WBoS" /> [[Hedley Fleetwood|Hedley Fleetwood's]] [[woolly mammoth]] Patronus is a notable exception.<ref name="WBoS" />
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The corporeal Patronus is also better at repelling Dementors than the non-corporeal form.
   
The corporeal patronus is also better at repelling Dementors than the incorporeal form.
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===Uses===
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There are two known uses for the Patronus Charm. The first and main use of the Patronus is to drive off certain [[Dark Arts|Dark]] creatures such as [[Dementor]]s and [[Lethifold]]s, and is the only known charm that will work against them. As Dementors feed on happy memories to render humans to drown in sorrow and sadness, the Patronus acts as a shield of sorts, of which the Dementor would try to feed off of instead - the Patronus is comprised exclusively of positive feelings and cannot comprehend negative emotion, so the Dementor's influence cannot harm it.
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[[File:HarryPotterDeath_feature.jpg|thumb|255px|Harry casting a Patronus during the Hunt for Horcruxes.]]
   
===Uses===
 
There are two known uses for the Patronus charm. The first and main use of the Patronus is to drive off certain [[Dark Arts|Dark]] creatures such as [[Dementor]]s and [[Lethifold]]s, and is the only known charm that will work against them. As Dementors feed on happy memories to render humans to drown in sorrow and sadness, the Patronus acts as a shield of sorts, of which the Dementor would try to feed off of instead - the Patronus is comprised exclusively of positive feelings and cannot comprehend negative emotion, so the Dementor's influence cannot harm it.
 
[[File:HarryPotterDeath_feature.jpg|thumb|Harry casting a Patronus during the Hunt for Horcruxes ]]
 
 
The other use was devised by [[Albus Dumbledore]], who invented a way of using the Patronus (corporeal and non) as a means of communication. They can deliver messages, speaking with the voice of the caster. This source of communication is believed to be exclusive to the members of the [[Order of the Phoenix]]. Using the Patronus for communication offers great advantages in security, as Patronuses identify the caster and are [[Dark Arts|Dark]]-proof.<ref name="OTP"/> A good example of this was when [[Minerva McGonagall]] used her feline Patronus to call for help to the other heads of houses in 1998 when she found out [[Harry Potter]] had returned to Hogwarts in search of [[Rowena Ravenclaw]]'s [[Diadem]]. Multiple Patronuses can be cast for communication, as McGonagall was able to create three. Another is when [[Severus Snape]] used his Patronus to lead [[Harry Potter]] to a pool in the [[Forest of Dean]] in 1997, where he had laid [[Godric Gryffindor's Sword]] for Harry to retrieve.
 
The other use was devised by [[Albus Dumbledore]], who invented a way of using the Patronus (corporeal and non) as a means of communication. They can deliver messages, speaking with the voice of the caster. This source of communication is believed to be exclusive to the members of the [[Order of the Phoenix]]. Using the Patronus for communication offers great advantages in security, as Patronuses identify the caster and are [[Dark Arts|Dark]]-proof.<ref name="OTP"/> A good example of this was when [[Minerva McGonagall]] used her feline Patronus to call for help to the other heads of houses in 1998 when she found out [[Harry Potter]] had returned to Hogwarts in search of [[Rowena Ravenclaw]]'s [[Diadem]]. Multiple Patronuses can be cast for communication, as McGonagall was able to create three. Another is when [[Severus Snape]] used his Patronus to lead [[Harry Potter]] to a pool in the [[Forest of Dean]] in 1997, where he had laid [[Godric Gryffindor's Sword]] for Harry to retrieve.
   
==Etymology==
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==Known practitioners==
''Patronus'' means "protector", "guardian", or simply "patron" in Latin, specifically reflecting the entire role that the Patronus Charm plays. In archaic Latin, it meant "father", which is very interesting, considering that [[Harry Potter]]'s Patronus is the same as his father's Patronus and [[Animagus]] form, a stag. The Latin word ''exspecto'' or ''expecto'' means "I look out for" or "I wait for", thus the charm's incantation roughly translates into "I await a protector."
 
 
==Known Practitioners==
 
 
{{Quote|A Patronus is a kind of positive force, and for the wizard who can conjure one, it works something like a shield, with the Dementor feeding on it, rather than him. In order for it to work, you need to think of a memory. Not just any memory, a very ''happy'' memory, a very ''powerful'' memory… Allow it to fill you up... lose yourself in it... then speak the incantation "Expecto Patronum".|[[Remus Lupin]] teaching [[Harry Potter]] the Patronus Charm|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)}}
 
{{Quote|A Patronus is a kind of positive force, and for the wizard who can conjure one, it works something like a shield, with the Dementor feeding on it, rather than him. In order for it to work, you need to think of a memory. Not just any memory, a very ''happy'' memory, a very ''powerful'' memory… Allow it to fill you up... lose yourself in it... then speak the incantation "Expecto Patronum".|[[Remus Lupin]] teaching [[Harry Potter]] the Patronus Charm|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)}}
<gallery widths="137" captionalign="left" orientation="square">
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<gallery widths="137" orientation="square" position="center">
Harry Potters' Patronus.jpg|[[Harry Potter]]'s Patronus, a [[Deer|stag]] (identical to [[James Potter I|his father's]]).
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Harry Potters' Patronus.jpg|[[Harry Potter]] and [[James Potter|James Potter's]] Patronus, a [[Deer|stag]]
 
File:Patronus.PNG|[[Hermione Granger]]'s Patronus, an otter.
 
File:Patronus.PNG|[[Hermione Granger]]'s Patronus, an otter.
File:Ron's Patronus.gif|[[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]]'s Patronus, a Jack Russell terrier.
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Ron's dog Patronus.jpg|[[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]]'s Patronus, a Jack Russell terrier.
 
File:Ginny Patronus.JPG|[[Ginevra Weasley|Ginny Weasley]]'s Patronus, a horse.
 
File:Ginny Patronus.JPG|[[Ginevra Weasley|Ginny Weasley]]'s Patronus, a horse.
 
File:Deathly Hallows book Art (Chapter 08).jpg|[[Kingsley Shacklebolt]]'s Patronus, a lynx.
 
File:Deathly Hallows book Art (Chapter 08).jpg|[[Kingsley Shacklebolt]]'s Patronus, a lynx.
 
File:Andros_the_Invencible.jpg|[[Andros the Invincible]]'s Patronus of giant size.
 
File:Andros_the_Invencible.jpg|[[Andros the Invincible]]'s Patronus of giant size.
Tonks-Patronus.jpg|[[Nymphadora Tonks]]' second Patronus, a [[Werewolf|werewolf]].
+
Tonks-Patronus.jpg|[[Nymphadora Tonks]]' second Patronus, a [[wolf]].
 
umbridge's Patronus.jpg|[[Dolores Umbridge]]'s Patronus, a cat.
 
umbridge's Patronus.jpg|[[Dolores Umbridge]]'s Patronus, a cat.
Lpin'sPatornus.JPG|[[Remus Lupin]]'s non-corporeal Patronus.
+
Lpin'sPatornus.JPG|[[Remus Lupin]]'s disguised Patronus.
 
Dumbledores phoenix patronus.jpg|[[Albus Dumbledore]]'s Patronus, a [[Phoenix|phoenix]].
 
Dumbledores phoenix patronus.jpg|[[Albus Dumbledore]]'s Patronus, a [[Phoenix|phoenix]].
 
Patronus Fox2.JPG|[[Seamus Finnigan]]'s Patronus, a [[Fox|fox]].
 
Patronus Fox2.JPG|[[Seamus Finnigan]]'s Patronus, a [[Fox|fox]].
Line 78: Line 74:
 
patronus2.gif|[[Luna Lovegood]]'s Patronus, a hare.
 
patronus2.gif|[[Luna Lovegood]]'s Patronus, a hare.
 
Goat_Patronus.jpg|[[Aberforth Dumbledore]]'s Patronus, a goat.
 
Goat_Patronus.jpg|[[Aberforth Dumbledore]]'s Patronus, a goat.
Severus Snape's Patronus Charm.jpg|[[Severus Snape]]'s Patronus, a [[Deer|doe]].
 
 
IllyiusMousePatronus.png|[[Illyius]]'s Patronus, a mouse.
 
IllyiusMousePatronus.png|[[Illyius]]'s Patronus, a mouse.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
Line 94: Line 89:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Illyius]]
 
|[[Illyius]]
|{{wplink|Mouse}}
+
|[[Mouse]]
 
|Initially, Illyius's fellow villagers mocked him as they had never seen such a small and weak-looking Patronus, which corresponded to Illyius's timidity and tongue-tiedness. However, when dark wizard [[Raczidian]] invaded the village with his army of [[Dementor]]s, Illyius's mouse Patronus proved to be stronger than the others, making him a hero.
 
|Initially, Illyius's fellow villagers mocked him as they had never seen such a small and weak-looking Patronus, which corresponded to Illyius's timidity and tongue-tiedness. However, when dark wizard [[Raczidian]] invaded the village with his army of [[Dementor]]s, Illyius's mouse Patronus proved to be stronger than the others, making him a hero.
 
|-
 
|-
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|[[Hedley Fleetwood]]
 
|[[Hedley Fleetwood]]
 
|[[Woolly mammoth]]
 
|[[Woolly mammoth]]
<ref name="WBoS" />
+
<ref name="WB" />
 
|An unusual form due to the extreme rarity of extinct Patronuses.
 
|An unusual form due to the extreme rarity of extinct Patronuses.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Hermione Granger]]
 
|[[Hermione Granger]]
 
|[[Otter]]
 
|[[Otter]]
|Seen in the last [[Dumbledore's Army]] meeting in [[1996]]. It is apparently the only spell Hermione has trouble with, as said in [[1998]] while escaping from the [[British Ministry of Magic|Ministry of Magic]].
+
|Seen in the last [[Dumbledore's Army]] meeting in [[1996]]. It is apparently the only spell Hermione has trouble with, as said in [[1997]] while escaping from the [[British Ministry of Magic|Ministry of Magic]].
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Harry Potter]]
 
|[[Harry Potter]]
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|-
 
|-
 
|[[Symposia Rawle]]
 
|[[Symposia Rawle]]
|[[Wikipedia:Ladybug|Ladybird]]
+
|[[Ladybird]]
<ref name="WBoS" />
 
 
|An unusual form that was very powerful despite its tiny size.
 
|An unusual form that was very powerful despite its tiny size.
 
|-
 
|-
Line 164: Line 159:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Nymphadora Tonks]]
 
|[[Nymphadora Tonks]]
|[[Werewolf]] (previous Patronus unknown)
+
|[[Wolf]] (previously a [[Rabbit|jack rabbit]]<ref name="PM"/>)
 
|The form of Tonks' Patronus changed in [[1996]]. It became a [[werewolf]] due to her love for [[Remus Lupin]], though Harry Potter and Hermione Granger initially believed it was a black dog, triggered by the death of her second cousin [[Sirius Black]] (whose [[Animagus]] form was a black dog). Changes of Patronus are rare and usually caused by devastating life traumas. Occasionally when a witch and a wizard are married, their Patronuses will match each other (most likely because the witch/wizard's happy thought will be that of their spouse).
 
|The form of Tonks' Patronus changed in [[1996]]. It became a [[werewolf]] due to her love for [[Remus Lupin]], though Harry Potter and Hermione Granger initially believed it was a black dog, triggered by the death of her second cousin [[Sirius Black]] (whose [[Animagus]] form was a black dog). Changes of Patronus are rare and usually caused by devastating life traumas. Occasionally when a witch and a wizard are married, their Patronuses will match each other (most likely because the witch/wizard's happy thought will be that of their spouse).
  +
|-
  +
|[[Remus Lupin]]
  +
|[[Wolf]]
  +
<ref name="pmlupin">[http://www.pottermore.com/en/book3/chapter22/moment1/remus-lupin Pottermore - New From J. K. Rowling - Remus Lupin]</ref>
  +
|Remus often deliberately disguised the form of his Patronus because he felt that it would give away too much about his [[lycanthropy|condition]].<ref name="PM"/><ref name="pmlupin" />
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Arthur Weasley]]
 
|[[Arthur Weasley]]
Line 183: Line 183:
 
|[[Cat]]
 
|[[Cat]]
 
|While interrogating [[Muggle-born]]s at a trial, she had cast a Patronus to ward the Dementors from the prosecutors. Her favourite animal, as shown by the many plates with cats on them in her office. She was able to cast the Patronus due to her affinity with the [[Salazar Slytherin's Locket|locket]] [[Horcrux]]'s evil influence.
 
|While interrogating [[Muggle-born]]s at a trial, she had cast a Patronus to ward the Dementors from the prosecutors. Her favourite animal, as shown by the many plates with cats on them in her office. She was able to cast the Patronus due to her affinity with the [[Salazar Slytherin's Locket|locket]] [[Horcrux]]'s evil influence.
|-
 
 
|}
 
|}
  +
  +
==Etymology==
  +
''Patronus'' means "protector", "guardian", or simply "patron" in Latin, specifically reflecting the entire role that the Patronus Charm plays. In archaic Latin, it meant "father", which is very interesting, considering that [[Harry Potter]]'s Patronus is the same as his father's Patronus and [[Animagus]] form, a stag. The Latin word ''exspecto'' or ''expecto'' means "I look out for" or "I wait for", thus the charm's incantation roughly translates into "I await a protector."
   
 
==Behind the scenes==
 
==Behind the scenes==
[[File:Patronusingames.jpg|thumb|180px|The spell as seen in the [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)|third video game]].]]
+
[[File:Patronusingames.jpg|thumb|left|205px|The spell as seen in the [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)|third video game]].]]
  +
 
*Two Patronuses planned for the films but ultimately cut include a [[Thestral]] and a chimpanzee<ref>''[[Harry Potter Limited Edition]]''</ref>
 
*Two Patronuses planned for the films but ultimately cut include a [[Thestral]] and a chimpanzee<ref>''[[Harry Potter Limited Edition]]''</ref>
 
*The Patronuses of [[James Potter I|James Potter]] and [[Minerva McGonagall]] match their respective [[Animagus|Animagi]] form. These are the only characters whose Patronus and Animagus forms are known. It is uncertain whether all Patronuses will match the form of the Animagus, but so far, an instance of differing forms has not been revealed.
 
*The Patronuses of [[James Potter I|James Potter]] and [[Minerva McGonagall]] match their respective [[Animagus|Animagi]] form. These are the only characters whose Patronus and Animagus forms are known. It is uncertain whether all Patronuses will match the form of the Animagus, but so far, an instance of differing forms has not been revealed.
 
*In the first chapter of ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'', a white peacock appears in the gardens of Malfoy Manor. Some fans believed this bird to be [[Lucius Malfoy]]'s Patronus. However, [[J. K. Rowling]] stated that no [[Death Eaters|Death Eater]] except Severus Snape could (or had a need to) conjure a Patronus, because Death Eaters fight alongside that which Patronuses fight against.<ref name="bloomsbury">[http://www.the-leaky-cauldron.org/2007/7/30/j-k-rowling-web-chat-transcript The Leaky Cauldron] - J.K. Rowling July 30, 2007 Bloomsbury.com chat</ref> This means that the peacock was in fact a living creature. It is stated in ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'' that the creature was in fact an albino peacock.
 
*In the first chapter of ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'', a white peacock appears in the gardens of Malfoy Manor. Some fans believed this bird to be [[Lucius Malfoy]]'s Patronus. However, [[J. K. Rowling]] stated that no [[Death Eaters|Death Eater]] except Severus Snape could (or had a need to) conjure a Patronus, because Death Eaters fight alongside that which Patronuses fight against.<ref name="bloomsbury">[http://www.the-leaky-cauldron.org/2007/7/30/j-k-rowling-web-chat-transcript The Leaky Cauldron] - J.K. Rowling July 30, 2007 Bloomsbury.com chat</ref> This means that the peacock was in fact a living creature. It is stated in ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'' that the creature was in fact an albino peacock.
 
*In the [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)|video game adaptation]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]'', the more moderate Expecto Patronum is a ball of light (before cast, a white ring goes up Harry's arm and if it reaches top of the wand, Harry has to try the spell again) and is used only to attack Dementors. At the climax of the game, a stag (Harry's Patronus) jumps out of the wand to drive away all the Dementors nearby attacking Harry and Sirius.
 
*In the [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)|video game adaptation]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]'', the more moderate Expecto Patronum is a ball of light (before cast, a white ring goes up Harry's arm and if it reaches top of the wand, Harry has to try the spell again) and is used only to attack Dementors. At the climax of the game, a stag (Harry's Patronus) jumps out of the wand to drive away all the Dementors nearby attacking Harry and Sirius.
*In the said video game, the [[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)|first video game adaption]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'', ''[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4]]/[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7|5-7]]'' the Patronus Charm appears to push the Dementors away with the first shot and a second shot kills them.
+
*In the said video game, the [[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)|first video game adaption]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'', and ''[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4]]/[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7|5-7]]'' the Patronus Charm appears to push the Dementors away with the first shot, and a second shot kills them.
 
*The lecture that Harry gives on Patronuses to [[Dumbledore's Army]] in the [[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)|film version]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix]]'' is extremely similar to the lecture [[Remus Lupin]] gave him in the [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)|film version]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]''.
 
*The lecture that Harry gives on Patronuses to [[Dumbledore's Army]] in the [[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)|film version]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix]]'' is extremely similar to the lecture [[Remus Lupin]] gave him in the [[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)|film version]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]''.
 
*In ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1]]'', [[Dolores Umbridge]]'s Patronus seems to emanate a shield that keeps the Dementors separated from everyone in the courtroom. In addition, Kingsley Shacklebolt's Patronus is described in the novel as taking the form of a lynx, however in the film it is depicted as a shimmering comet of light from which springs silvery images of witches and wizards screaming in terror as Kingsley's voice details the death of Scrimgeour and the fall of the Ministry.
 
*In ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1]]'', [[Dolores Umbridge]]'s Patronus seems to emanate a shield that keeps the Dementors separated from everyone in the courtroom. In addition, Kingsley Shacklebolt's Patronus is described in the novel as taking the form of a lynx, however in the film it is depicted as a shimmering comet of light from which springs silvery images of witches and wizards screaming in terror as Kingsley's voice details the death of Scrimgeour and the fall of the Ministry.
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*According to [[Wizards' Ordinary Magic and Basic Aptitude Test|W.O.M.B.A.T.]], it is possible that Patronuses vary in strength according to which animal's form they take. Later canon from ''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]'', however, stresses that this is not the case and that the form of the animal has no correlation to the strength of the Patronus (see, for instance, [[Illyius]] and [[Symposia Rawle]]).
 
*According to [[Wizards' Ordinary Magic and Basic Aptitude Test|W.O.M.B.A.T.]], it is possible that Patronuses vary in strength according to which animal's form they take. Later canon from ''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]'', however, stresses that this is not the case and that the form of the animal has no correlation to the strength of the Patronus (see, for instance, [[Illyius]] and [[Symposia Rawle]]).
 
*The [[Patronus spellbook]], owned by [[Remus Lupin]], includes information and instruction on the Patronus Charm.
 
*The [[Patronus spellbook]], owned by [[Remus Lupin]], includes information and instruction on the Patronus Charm.
*In an interview, J. K. Rowling stated that the happy memory that would produce the strongest Patronus for her would be the births of any of her three children, though a close fourth would be when she learned that ''[[Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone]]'' was going to be published.<ref name="bluepeter">''Harry Potter: A Blue Peter Special'' interview, transcript available [http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2007/0720-bluepeter.html here]</ref> She has also stated that she'd like for her patronus to be an otter, like Hermione's, but she has a feeling it might actually be a large dog.<ref name="bloomsbury" /> Additionally, in a 2000 interview, she stated that the Patronus charm was her favourite spell in the series so far.<ref name=AOLLive">[http://www.cesnur.org/2001/potter/march_03.htm AOL Live Interview - October 19, 2000]</ref>
+
*In an interview, J. K. Rowling stated that the happy memory that would produce the strongest Patronus for her would be the births of any of her three children, though a close fourth would be when she learned that ''[[Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone]]'' was going to be published.<ref name="bluepeter">''Harry Potter: A Blue Peter Special'' interview, transcript available [http://www.accio-quote.org/articles/2007/0720-bluepeter.html here]</ref> She has also stated that she'd like for her Patronus to be an otter, like Hermione's, but she has a feeling it might actually be a large dog.<ref name="bloomsbury" /> Additionally, in a 2000 interview, she stated that the Patronus Charm was her favourite spell in the series so far.<ref name=AOLLive">[http://www.cesnur.org/2001/potter/march_03.htm AOL Live Interview - October 19, 2000]</ref>
*Although [[Lupin]] provides most of the information within the books about the Patronus Charm, his Patronus is never identified.
 
 
*Luna Lovegood's hare Patronus is possibly a reference to the {{wplink|moon rabbit}}, a figure in East Asian mythology.
 
*Luna Lovegood's hare Patronus is possibly a reference to the {{wplink|moon rabbit}}, a figure in East Asian mythology.
*Learning to cast a Patronus is one of the tasks given to the player in the final Chapter of the game ''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]''. For learning the incantation and gesture, the player is given the Trophy "Expecto Patronum!" On the next page, the player is given the chance to cast a true Patronus, the form of which is apparently chosen randomly. Amongst the possible Patronuses are a bat, a bull, a cat, a goat, a horse, a rabbit and a scorpion.<ref name="wbtruepatronus">See [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8enWNv52VtA this YouTube video]'s comments</ref> For discovering their Patronus, the player is awarded the Trophy "True Patronus."
+
*Learning to cast a Patronus is one of the tasks given to the player in the final Chapter of the game ''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]''. For learning the incantation and gesture, the player is given the Trophy "Expecto Patronum!" On the next page, the player is given the chance to cast a true Patronus, the form of which is apparently chosen randomly. Amongst the possible Patronuses are a bat, a bull, a cat, a goat, a horse, a rabbit, a scorpion and a snake.<ref name="wbtruepatronus">See [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8enWNv52VtA this YouTube video]'s comments</ref> For discovering their Patronus, the player is awarded the Trophy "True Patronus."
   
 
===Patronuses in the films===
 
===Patronuses in the films===
 
[[Video:Expecto Patronum 2|thumb|350px|right|Patronus being cast.]]
 
[[Video:Expecto Patronum 2|thumb|350px|right|Patronus being cast.]]
 
*In the [[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)|film adaptation]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix]]'', his Patronus physically attacks the Dementors by charging at them, as depicted in the books. Also, Patronuses produced by the members of Dumbledore's Army make noises and are capable of interacting with physical objects, such as Ron's dog Patronus knocking over [[Neville Longbottom]].
 
*In the [[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)|film adaptation]] of ''[[Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix]]'', his Patronus physically attacks the Dementors by charging at them, as depicted in the books. Also, Patronuses produced by the members of Dumbledore's Army make noises and are capable of interacting with physical objects, such as Ron's dog Patronus knocking over [[Neville Longbottom]].
*There was a noted change in appearance of Patronuses in general in the ''Order of the Phoenix'' movie. In movies 5-8, Patronuses very wispy and airy, while in the third film they looks more substantial, solid and brighter.
+
*There was a noted change in appearance of Patronuses in general in the ''Order of the Phoenix'' movie. In movies 5-8, Patronuses very wispy and airy, while in the third film they look more substantial, solid and brighter.
 
*In ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1]]'', during the [[infiltration of the Ministry of Magic]], Umbridge's Patronus was very clearly seen several times in the same scene and often looked less like a cat and more like a reanimated, feline corpse, with the skeletal features visible. This is odd for a Patronus (they usually look quite 'alive' and well) and its twisted form may be a nod to both Umbridge's nature and the circumstances under which it was cast.
 
*In ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1]]'', during the [[infiltration of the Ministry of Magic]], Umbridge's Patronus was very clearly seen several times in the same scene and often looked less like a cat and more like a reanimated, feline corpse, with the skeletal features visible. This is odd for a Patronus (they usually look quite 'alive' and well) and its twisted form may be a nod to both Umbridge's nature and the circumstances under which it was cast.
 
*In the film adaptation of ''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]'', the Patronus in its powerful wave-like form emits a deep reverberating sound. In ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2]]'' this effect was also used when [[Aberforth Dumbledore]] protected Hogwarts from Dementors.
 
*In the film adaptation of ''[[Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban]]'', the Patronus in its powerful wave-like form emits a deep reverberating sound. In ''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2]]'' this effect was also used when [[Aberforth Dumbledore]] protected Hogwarts from Dementors.
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*''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)]]''
 
*''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)]]''
 
*''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2]]''
 
*''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2]]''
*''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (video game)]]'' {{comment|Cutscenes only}}
+
*''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (video game)]]'' {{Comment|Cutscenes only}}
 
*''[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4]]''
 
*''[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4]]''
 
*''[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7]]''
 
*''[[LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7]]''
 
*''[[Harry Potter: Spells]]''
 
*''[[Harry Potter: Spells]]''
 
*''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]''
 
*''[[Wonderbook: Book of Spells]]''
  +
*''[[Pottermore]]''
   
 
==Notes and references==
 
==Notes and references==
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{{Defence Against the Dark Arts}}
 
{{Defence Against the Dark Arts}}
   
  +
[[es:Encantamiento Patronus]]
 
[[fr:Sortilège du Patronus]]
 
[[fr:Sortilège du Patronus]]
 
[[it:Incanto Patronus]]
 
[[it:Incanto Patronus]]
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[[Category:Protective Spells]]
 
[[Category:Protective Spells]]
 
[[Category:Spells with Incantations of Latin Origin]]
 
[[Category:Spells with Incantations of Latin Origin]]
[[Category:Defence Against the Dark Arts ]]
+
[[Category:Defence Against the Dark Arts]]
  +
[[Category:Light-based magic]]
  +
[[Category:Spells of known incantation]]

Latest revision as of 03:24, April 20, 2014

Prongs
Patronus Charm
Incantation

Expecto Patronum[1]
(ex-PEK-toh pa-TRO-num)[2]

Type

Charm[1]

Hand Movement

Expecto Patronum movement

Light

Silver[1]

Effect

Conjures a spirit guardian[3]

"This ancient and mysterious charm conjures a magical guardian, a projection of all your most positive feelings. The Patronus Charm is difficult, and many witches and wizards are unable to produce a full, corporeal Patronus, a guardian which generally takes the shape of the animal with whom they share the deepest affinity. You may suspect, but you will never truly know what form your Patronus will take until you succeed in conjuring it."
Miranda Goshawk[src]

The Patronus Charm (Expecto Patronum) is the most famous and one of the most powerful defensive charms known to wizardkind.[4] It's an immensely complicated, very difficult spell that evokes a partially-tangible positive energy force known as a Patronus (pl. Patronuses[5]) or spirit guardian.[3] The charm was primarily designed for defence against Dementors and Lethifolds, against which there is no other protection.[6] Albus Dumbledore, however, invented a means of using one's Patronus as a messenger to other witches and wizards, and this is the method of communication that the Order of the Phoenix uses.[3]

HistoryEdit

It is evident from old woodcuts and scrolls that the Patronus Charm has been used since ancient times.[7] It therefore is unknown who created it, or when it was first invented.[7] The charm also has a long association with those fighting for lofty or noble causes (those able to produce corporeal Patronuses were often elected to high office within the Wizengamot and Ministry of Magic).[4]

CastingEdit

Harry: "And how do you conjure it?"
Remus: "With an incantation, which will work only if you are concentrating, with all your might, on a single, very happy memory."
Harry Potter and Remus Lupin[src]

The vast majority of witches and wizards are unable to produce any form of Patronus, and to create even an intangible one is generally considered a mark of superior magical ability.[4]

To successfully cast the spell, one must muster the happiest memory they can think of (the happier the memory, the better the charm will work)[1] and begin drawing circles with their wand so as to increase the power of their spell.[7] They must then say the incantation, "Expecto Patronum"; the Patronus will come from the tip of the wand and can be directed towards a target by pointing one's wand at said target.[8]

It is possible to disguise the form one's Patronus takes, which was done both by Severus Snape to hide his love for Lily Evans, and by Remus Lupin, who felt it would give away his condition.[4]

DifficultyEdit

"That's very, very advanced magic ..."
Hermione Granger on the difficulty and complexity of the charm[src]

The Patronus Charm is widely regarded as advanced magic, far beyond N.E.W.T.-level.[1] It is a very complex charm and many qualified wizards and witches have trouble with it.[4] In fact, Harry Potter is one of the youngest known wizards able to cast a Patronus; he was taught how to do so in early 1994 at the age of thirteen by Remus Lupin.[9] In a Dumbledore's Army lesson, Harry taught the members how to use the charm. Some were even successful in casting a corporeal form, though Harry said this might be because there was no Dementor to make them frightened.[10]  However, some members were later shown to be able to cast corporeal Patronuses in the presence of Dementors.[11]

Amelia Bones and potential members of the D.A. were all very impressed when Harry Potter revealed that he could cast not only a Patronus Charm but a corporeal one to boot, which is notably more difficult than casting an incorporeal one. Given that the success of the charm is directly reliant on the caster retaining a particular mental state the Charm is more difficult to cast in emotionally trying circumstances. For instance, Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, and Hermione Granger all had difficulty casting their Patronuses when under the negative influence of Salazar Slytherin's Locket, one of Lord Voldemort's Horcruxes, and after witnessing the death of Fred Weasley in battle.[11] This feature of the Charm is particularly unfortunate since the Charm's primary use is to defend against Dementors, Dark creatures specifically equipped to mentally unhinge people (and hence is partly why it is regarded as such advanced, difficult magic).

Self-confidence may also play an important role in casting the spell. In 1994 Harry is able to cast the spell successfully, driving off a large number of Dementors (which according to Severus Snape is only achievable by a very powerful wizard) thus saving Sirius and a younger version of himself, seemingly without recalling a happy memory, when he realises that he has already done it. Although Harry could have had a "happy memory" upon realising that he had saved all three of their lives.

WorthinessEdit

Raczidian'sDemise
Raczidian's demise while trying to cast a Patronus.
Seth CooperAdded by Seth Cooper

It is a general belief held by the wizarding world that only those who are pure of heart are able to cast Patronuses; this, however, is a falsehood.[4] Although generally Dark witches and wizards will not try to produce a Patronus, not having any need for one, most Dark wizards will be devoured by maggots coming from their wand and consuming the caster.[7]

For this reason, Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters were not able to cast a Patronus Charm (not that it was necessary, as they already had the dark creatures under their control via their affinity to darkness, and would have no use for Patronuses).[12] However, some witches and wizards of questionable morals, such as Dolores Umbridge, are able to produce corporeal Patronuses, Umbridge doing so despite the fact that she was considered an evil person; her wearing of Salazar Slytherin's Locket, which was one of Voldemort's Horcruxes, was what enhanced her strength due to her evil affinity.[4] She was able to produce a corporeal Patronus due to the enhanced strength. Conversely, Draco Malfoy was unable to cast one despite his waning evil. Severus Snape is the only Death Eater capable of casting the charm, as his love for Lily Evans was his one redeeming point.

The PatronusEdit

A successfully conjured Patronus can take two forms: non-corporeal or corporeal, and both types vary greatly in their appearances and strength.

Non-corporealEdit

HarryPatronusPoA
Harry, casting a non-corporeal, shield Patronus.
OreadAdded by Oread

A non-corporeal Patronus is one which does not resemble any living creature and has few distinguishing features (if any). Non-corporeal Patronuses resemble a burst of vapour or smoke without any clearly defined form shooting from the tip of the wand. While they may be partially effective at halting dementors (but not repelling them), non-corporeal Patronuses are not "fully-fledged" Patronuses, and are regarded as a more primitive or weaker version of the true Charm.

CorporealEdit

Harry: "What does a Patronus look like?"
Lupin: "Each one is unique to the wizard who conjures it."
Harry Potter and Remus Lupin discussing corporeal forms of the charm[src]
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Harry casting a Patronus Charm when he was attacked in Little Whinging.

A corporeal Patronus is one that is fully-formed, taking the shape of bright-white, translucent animal. The specific animal forms that corporeal Patronuses take vary from person to person and reflect each individual's personality.

Patronus forms, however, are subject to change if the caster goes through an emotional upheaval of some sort, including falling in love. For example, Nymphadora Tonks's Patronus changed from its previous form to that of a four-legged creature which others guessed was a werewolf because then it would reflect her love of Remus Lupin, himself a werewolf.[10] Another example is Severus Snape, whose Patronus was that of a doe, the same as Lily Evans, though this may have been the case all along rather than a change from its original form, as Snape was in love with Lily for most of his life. Based on the fact that Patronuses are conjured by recalling happy memories, it stands to reason that a Patronus might change its form after one falls in love and the memories used to conjure the Patronus largely revolve around the person the caster is in love with. In addition, it seems that some couples have "complementary" Patronuses (male and female forms of the same animal), such as Lily and James Potter. It is, however, unknown if this is a coincidence or not. If a wizard is an Animagus and can summon a corporeal Patronus, the two may take the same form, as was the case for Minerva McGonagall and James Potter.[11]

Most Patronuses take the form of an ordinary animal, but magical creatures, such as Albus Dumbledore's phoenix Patronus, are not uncommon. However, it is extremely rare for Patronuses to take the form of extinct animals.[7] Hedley Fleetwood's woolly mammoth Patronus is a notable exception.[7] Andros the Invincible was the only wizard capable of casting a Patronus of a giant.

The corporeal Patronus is also better at repelling Dementors than the non-corporeal form.

UsesEdit

There are two known uses for the Patronus Charm. The first and main use of the Patronus is to drive off certain Dark creatures such as Dementors and Lethifolds, and is the only known charm that will work against them. As Dementors feed on happy memories to render humans to drown in sorrow and sadness, the Patronus acts as a shield of sorts, of which the Dementor would try to feed off of instead - the Patronus is comprised exclusively of positive feelings and cannot comprehend negative emotion, so the Dementor's influence cannot harm it.

HarryPotterDeath feature
Harry casting a Patronus during the Hunt for Horcruxes.

The other use was devised by Albus Dumbledore, who invented a way of using the Patronus (corporeal and non) as a means of communication. They can deliver messages, speaking with the voice of the caster. This source of communication is believed to be exclusive to the members of the Order of the Phoenix. Using the Patronus for communication offers great advantages in security, as Patronuses identify the caster and are Dark-proof.[10] A good example of this was when Minerva McGonagall used her feline Patronus to call for help to the other heads of houses in 1998 when she found out Harry Potter had returned to Hogwarts in search of Rowena Ravenclaw's Diadem. Multiple Patronuses can be cast for communication, as McGonagall was able to create three. Another is when Severus Snape used his Patronus to lead Harry Potter to a pool in the Forest of Dean in 1997, where he had laid Godric Gryffindor's Sword for Harry to retrieve.

Known practitionersEdit

"A Patronus is a kind of positive force, and for the wizard who can conjure one, it works something like a shield, with the Dementor feeding on it, rather than him. In order for it to work, you need to think of a memory. Not just any memory, a very happy memory, a very powerful memory… Allow it to fill you up... lose yourself in it... then speak the incantation "Expecto Patronum"."
Remus Lupin teaching Harry Potter the Patronus Charm[src]

Known PatronusesEdit

Witch/wizard Patronal form Notes
Andros the Invincible Something allegedly the size of a giant (possibly an actual giant) Stated on his Chocolate Frog Card as the only wizard to make a Patronus that size.
Illyius Mouse Initially, Illyius's fellow villagers mocked him as they had never seen such a small and weak-looking Patronus, which corresponded to Illyius's timidity and tongue-tiedness. However, when dark wizard Raczidian invaded the village with his army of Dementors, Illyius's mouse Patronus proved to be stronger than the others, making him a hero.
Flavius Belby Something with horns In Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, it's recorded that he cast off a Lethifold by performing the Patronus Charm. It says the Lethifold was thrown into the air on the horns of his Patronus.
Cho Chang Swan Seen in the last Dumbledore's Army meeting in 1996.
Aberforth Dumbledore Goat Summoned outside the Hog's Head in an attempt to convince the Death Eaters who had seen Harry's Patronus that they really saw a goat.
Albus Dumbledore Phoenix The bird whose loyalty he earned, Fawkes, was a phoenix. Also he used it in 1995 as a message to Hagrid when Krum was stunned. It was described as "a ghostly bird that flew off in the direction of Hagrid's house".
Seamus Finnigan Fox He could not yet produce a fully formed (corporeal) Patronus in Dumbledore's Army, though in the Battle of Hogwarts in 1998, he managed a Patronus in the shape of a fox.
Hedley Fleetwood Woolly mammoth

[7]

An unusual form due to the extreme rarity of extinct Patronuses.
Hermione Granger Otter Seen in the last Dumbledore's Army meeting in 1996. It is apparently the only spell Hermione has trouble with, as said in 1997 while escaping from the Ministry of Magic.
Harry Potter Stag Harry's Patronus is in the shape of his father's Animagus form and Patronus. He learned how to conjure a Patronus at an exceptionally young age.
James Potter Stag James' Animagus form was also that of a stag.
Luna Lovegood Hare

[11][13]

Seen in the last Dumbledore's Army meeting in 1996 and in the Battle of Hogwarts in 1998.
Ernie Macmillan Boar Seen in the Battle of Hogwarts in 1998.
Minerva McGonagall Cat Just before the Battle of Hogwarts, she sent her Patronus out to alert the other Heads of House that Hogwarts Castle would soon be under attack by Lord Voldemort and his followers.
Lily Potter Doe Mentioned in conjunction with Snape's Patronus. It was also the female form of her husband's Patronus.
Symposia Rawle Ladybird An unusual form that was very powerful despite its tiny size.
Kingsley Shacklebolt Lynx Seen in 1997 when he warned the Order during Bill and Fleur's wedding of the downfall of the Ministry of Magic and Rufus Scrimgeour's death.
Severus Snape Doe Acted as Harry's guide through the woods to where Godric Gryffindor's Sword was hidden. Snape's Patronus mirrored Lily's due to his unspoken love for her that began when they were small children.
Nymphadora Tonks Wolf (previously a jack rabbit[4]) The form of Tonks' Patronus changed in 1996. It became a werewolf due to her love for Remus Lupin, though Harry Potter and Hermione Granger initially believed it was a black dog, triggered by the death of her second cousin Sirius Black (whose Animagus form was a black dog). Changes of Patronus are rare and usually caused by devastating life traumas. Occasionally when a witch and a wizard are married, their Patronuses will match each other (most likely because the witch/wizard's happy thought will be that of their spouse).
Remus Lupin Wolf

[14]

Remus often deliberately disguised the form of his Patronus because he felt that it would give away too much about his condition.[4][14]
Arthur Weasley Weasel First seen when he sent a message about Rufus Scrimgeour's arrival on Harry's seventeenth birthday. Later seen when Arthur sent a Patronus to 12 Grimmauld Place to inform Harry, Ron and Hermione that the Weasley family was safe.
Ginny Weasley Horse

[15]

Seen in the last Dumbledore's Army meeting in 1996.
Ron Weasley Jack Russell Terrier[16] Seen in the last Dumbledore's Army meeting in 1996 and in the Battle of Hogwarts in 1998.
Dolores Umbridge Cat While interrogating Muggle-borns at a trial, she had cast a Patronus to ward the Dementors from the prosecutors. Her favourite animal, as shown by the many plates with cats on them in her office. She was able to cast the Patronus due to her affinity with the locket Horcrux's evil influence.

EtymologyEdit

Patronus means "protector", "guardian", or simply "patron" in Latin, specifically reflecting the entire role that the Patronus Charm plays. In archaic Latin, it meant "father", which is very interesting, considering that Harry Potter's Patronus is the same as his father's Patronus and Animagus form, a stag. The Latin word exspecto or expecto means "I look out for" or "I wait for", thus the charm's incantation roughly translates into "I await a protector."

Behind the scenesEdit

Patronusingames
The spell as seen in the third video game.
  • Two Patronuses planned for the films but ultimately cut include a Thestral and a chimpanzee[17]
  • The Patronuses of James Potter and Minerva McGonagall match their respective Animagi form. These are the only characters whose Patronus and Animagus forms are known. It is uncertain whether all Patronuses will match the form of the Animagus, but so far, an instance of differing forms has not been revealed.
  • In the first chapter of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, a white peacock appears in the gardens of Malfoy Manor. Some fans believed this bird to be Lucius Malfoy's Patronus. However, J. K. Rowling stated that no Death Eater except Severus Snape could (or had a need to) conjure a Patronus, because Death Eaters fight alongside that which Patronuses fight against.[18] This means that the peacock was in fact a living creature. It is stated in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows that the creature was in fact an albino peacock.
  • In the video game adaptation of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the more moderate Expecto Patronum is a ball of light (before cast, a white ring goes up Harry's arm and if it reaches top of the wand, Harry has to try the spell again) and is used only to attack Dementors. At the climax of the game, a stag (Harry's Patronus) jumps out of the wand to drive away all the Dementors nearby attacking Harry and Sirius.
  • In the said video game, the first video game adaption of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, and LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4/5-7 the Patronus Charm appears to push the Dementors away with the first shot, and a second shot kills them.
  • The lecture that Harry gives on Patronuses to Dumbledore's Army in the film version of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is extremely similar to the lecture Remus Lupin gave him in the film version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
  • In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1, Dolores Umbridge's Patronus seems to emanate a shield that keeps the Dementors separated from everyone in the courtroom. In addition, Kingsley Shacklebolt's Patronus is described in the novel as taking the form of a lynx, however in the film it is depicted as a shimmering comet of light from which springs silvery images of witches and wizards screaming in terror as Kingsley's voice details the death of Scrimgeour and the fall of the Ministry.
  • In LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4, Voldemort, Lucius Malfoy, Walden Macnair, Barty Crouch Jr., and an unnamed Death Eater can all cast the spell, despite the fact that Rowling stated that no Death Eater besides Severus Snape could produce a Patronus.
  • According to W.O.M.B.A.T., it is possible that Patronuses vary in strength according to which animal's form they take. Later canon from Wonderbook: Book of Spells, however, stresses that this is not the case and that the form of the animal has no correlation to the strength of the Patronus (see, for instance, Illyius and Symposia Rawle).
  • The Patronus spellbook, owned by Remus Lupin, includes information and instruction on the Patronus Charm.
  • In an interview, J. K. Rowling stated that the happy memory that would produce the strongest Patronus for her would be the births of any of her three children, though a close fourth would be when she learned that Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was going to be published.[19] She has also stated that she'd like for her Patronus to be an otter, like Hermione's, but she has a feeling it might actually be a large dog.[18] Additionally, in a 2000 interview, she stated that the Patronus Charm was her favourite spell in the series so far.[20]
  • Luna Lovegood's hare Patronus is possibly a reference to the moon rabbit, a figure in East Asian mythology.
  • Learning to cast a Patronus is one of the tasks given to the player in the final Chapter of the game Wonderbook: Book of Spells. For learning the incantation and gesture, the player is given the Trophy "Expecto Patronum!" On the next page, the player is given the chance to cast a true Patronus, the form of which is apparently chosen randomly. Amongst the possible Patronuses are a bat, a bull, a cat, a goat, a horse, a rabbit, a scorpion and a snake.[21] For discovering their Patronus, the player is awarded the Trophy "True Patronus."

Patronuses in the filmsEdit

Expecto Patronum 2(00:56)
Patronus being cast.
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  • In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, his Patronus physically attacks the Dementors by charging at them, as depicted in the books. Also, Patronuses produced by the members of Dumbledore's Army make noises and are capable of interacting with physical objects, such as Ron's dog Patronus knocking over Neville Longbottom.
  • There was a noted change in appearance of Patronuses in general in the Order of the Phoenix movie. In movies 5-8, Patronuses very wispy and airy, while in the third film they look more substantial, solid and brighter.
  • In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1, during the infiltration of the Ministry of Magic, Umbridge's Patronus was very clearly seen several times in the same scene and often looked less like a cat and more like a reanimated, feline corpse, with the skeletal features visible. This is odd for a Patronus (they usually look quite 'alive' and well) and its twisted form may be a nod to both Umbridge's nature and the circumstances under which it was cast.
  • In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the Patronus in its powerful wave-like form emits a deep reverberating sound. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 this effect was also used when Aberforth Dumbledore protected Hogwarts from Dementors.

AppearancesEdit

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Notes and referencesEdit


Defence Against the Dark Arts (D.A.D.A.)
TDF-AGTS-P
Professors: Galatea Merrythought · Quirinus Quirrell · Gilderoy Lockhart · Remus Lupin · Barty Crouch Jr. (as Alastor Moody) · Dolores Umbridge · Severus Snape ·
Amycus Carrow (as Dark Arts teacher)
Textbooks: The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection · Break with a Banshee · Gadding with Ghouls · Holidays with Hags · Travels with Trolls ·
Voyages with Vampires · Wanderings with Werewolves · Year with the Yeti · The Essential Defence Against the Dark Arts · Defensive Magical Theory · Dark Arts Defence: Basics for Beginners · Confronting the Faceless · Magical Drafts and Potions
D.A.D.A. at Hogwarts: Classroom 3C · Temporary Classroom · Tower · Professor's Office · Storeroom · Staircase · Lesson Cup · Race Cup · Dumbledore's Army
Spells covered under the subject: Curse of the Bogies · Knockback Jinx · Verdimillious Charm · Verdimillious Duo Spell · Verdimillious Tria · Wand-Lighting Charm · Freezing Spell · Seize and Pull Charm · Patronus Charm · Killing Curse · Cruciatus Curse · Imperius Curse · Impediment Jinx · Reductor Curse · Stunning Spell · Shield Charm · Nonverbal spells · Hex-deflection ·
Hex-Breaker · Hex Zapper
Creatures covered under the subject: Vampire bats · Iguanas · Cornish Pixies · Werewolves · Vampires · Hinkypunks · Boggarts · Red Caps · Kappas · Grindylows · Inferius

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