Some content in this article is derived from information featured in Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, and, as such, spoilers will be present.
An Ordinary Wizarding Level (often abbreviated O.W.L.) is a subject-specific test taken during Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry students' fifth year, administrated by the Wizarding Examinations Authority. The score made by a student on a particular O.W.L. determines whether or not he or she will be allowed to continue taking that subject in subsequent school years, and whether they might be successful in obtaining a particular job.
As well as referring to the test that students take in their fifth year, the term "O.W.L" also refers to the type of class, i.e. the level of difficulty of the class the student is taking. In addition, "achieving an O.W.L" is used to refer to a class in which the student has passed their O.W.L exam (example: Harry Potter received an O.W.L. in Transfiguration by attaining a passing grade on the O.W.L exam for that class.)
Due to the serious and important nature of the tests, preparation for both O.W.L.s and N.E.W.T.s is very hard work. Students will generally begin preparing for their O.W.L.s in their fourth year, in order to take them at the end of their fifth. The pressure was enough to make certain students, such as Hannah Abbott have a panic attack, and it was necessary to give them a Calming Draught to lower her anxiety.
These examinations in sort determine what type of career students will be able to obtain once their education is complete. Some careers require certain subjects to be taken at N.E.W.T. -level and with a passing grade or in some cases top grades. In order to be admitted into a class at N.E.W.T. a student must first achieve an 'Outstanding' or 'Exceeds Expectations' at O.W.L.-level in order to cope with the upcoming course work, which will be much more advanced. Minerva McGonagall would not let Neville Longbottom into her N.E.W.T. Transfiguration class, because he did not achieve a high enough grade, that would limit the type of career Neville would be able to hold in the future.
Cheating is also both highly tempting for the students and highly guarded against by the exam givers. Anti-Cheating Spells are applied to all O.W.L. exam papers. Auto-Answer Quills, Remembralls, Detachable Cribbing Cuffs, and Self-Correcting Ink are all banned from the examination hall as well. Despite this, at least one student attempts to cheat every year, though none have been successful since the year 1896.
Most O.W.L.s are divided into written exams and practical exams. The O.W.L. is comparable to the Muggle "O level" given at the same stage of education (the "O" standing for Ordinary). In 1988, this examination was replaced by the G.C.S.E. in England and Wales and the Standard Certificate level in Scotland, though in recent years the Standard Certificate has been replaced by National 5s in Scotland, but wizards are under no obligation to change their examinations when Muggles do. Strict measures, such as Anti-Cheating Quills and Anti-Cheating spells, are used to prevent academic dishonesty. Among the examiners were Griselda Marchbanks and Professor Tofty. When a practical examination starts students will be called in aperiodically, by either first or last name.
O.W.L. exams are administered over a period of two successive weeks at the end of fifth year. Most exams are divided into two parts: students will sit the theory portion in the morning and the practical portion in the afternoon, with the exception of the Astronomy practical exam, which occurs at night.
|Charms||Monday||Written: Levitation Charm, Cheering Charm, and Counter-charm for hiccoughs|
|Practical: Take an egg cup and make it do some cartwheels, Levitation Charm, Colour Change, and Growth Charms.|
|Transfiguration||Tuesday||Written: One of the questions was the definition of a Switching Spell|
|Practical: Vanishing spell (one of the most complicated spells taught at O.W.L)|
|Practical: Fanged Geranium and other plants|
|Defence Against the Dark Arts||Thursday||Written: Question ten — name five signs that identify the werewolf|
|Practical:Counter-jinxes, Defensive Spells, Riddikulus, and Patronus Charm (for bonus points)|
|Ancient Runes||Friday||Written: Translation of runes like "ehwaz" and "eihwaz"|
|Practical: Unknown; given the highly theoretical nature of this discipline, its exam may consist solely of a written section.|
|Potions||Monday||Written: Contains a question about Polyjuice Potion (it's noted that the written exam is quite difficult)|
|Practical: The making of certain potions, although few details are provided.|
|Care of Magical Creatures||Tuesday||Written: Unknown|
|Practical: Identify a Knarl hidden among a dozen hedgehogs; Demonstrate correct handling of a Bowtruckle; Feed and clean out a Fire Crab without sustaining serious burns; Choose from a wide selection of food the diet they would give a sick Unicorn|
|Astronomy||Wednesday||Written: Identify all of Jupiter's moons (among other questions, presumably).|
|Practical: Look at the telescope and fill in the blank star‐chart with the precise positions of the stars and planets they were observing.|
|Practical: Crystal ball reading, tea-leaf reading, palm-reading|
|Practical: Unknown; given the highly theoretical nature of this discipline, its exam may consist solely of a written section.|
|History of Magic||Thursday||Written: Wand legislation; Goblin riots of the eighteenth century; Statute of Secrecy breach; Formation of the International Confederation of Wizards and explain why the Warlocks of Liechtenstein refused to join|
Muggle Studies – It is not specified when this exam is taken or what components it includes.
If a student fails an O.W.L. and still wishes to retake it, they are presumably held back in that class. This was the case for Marcus Flint; Professor Severus Snape also remarked in 1996 that Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle need to pass their Defence Against the Dark Arts O.W.L.
- Outstanding [O] (always continues to N.E.W.T.-level)
- Exceeds Expectations [E] (usually continues to N.E.W.T.-level)
- Acceptable [A] (rarely continues to N.E.W.T.-level)
Confirmed O.W.L.s received by subject
|Subject||Known Students Who Achieved O.W.L.||Notes|
|Study of Ancient Runes||Hermione Granger, Bill Weasley, Percy Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Bathsheda Babbling|
|Arithmancy||Hermione Granger, Bill Weasley, Percy Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Septima Vector|
|Astronomy||Hermione Granger, Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr., Aurora Sinistra||Harry and Ron's O.W.L.s may or may not have allowed them to continue to N.E.W.T.-level, though it is unknown as neither of them chose to apply for the subject in either case.|
|Care of Magical Creatures||Hermione Granger, Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, Charlie Weasley, Angelina Johnson, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Silvanus Kettleburn, Wilhelmina Grubbly-Plank||
It was never mentioned that Charlie earned a pass, but it seems likely since he works directly with magical creatures.
|It is never noted that Luna Lovegood achieved an O.W.L. in this subject, but seeing as she became a Magizoologist it's very likely.|
|It is also very possible that Luna's husband Rolf Scamander achieved an O.W.L. in this subject as well, considering he was also a Magizoologist.|
Seamus Finnigan, Hermione Granger, Neville Longbottom, Harry Potter, Dean Thomas, Ron Weasley, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Fred Weasley, George Weasley, Alicia Spinnet, Cedric Diggory, Barty Crouch, Jr., Filius Flitwick, Nymphadora Tonks, Alastor Moody, Kingsley Shacklebolt, Lee Jordan, Isobel Ross
|Augusta Longbottom failed her Charms O.W.L.|
|Isobel Ross, the mother of Minerva McGonagall, most likely achieved an O.W.L. in this subject, as she excelled in Charms and graduated top of her class in the subject.|
|Defence Against the Dark Arts||Hannah Abbott, Susan Bones, Terry Boot, Lavender Brown, Michael Corner, Seamus Finnigan, Anthony Goldstein, Hermione Granger, Neville Longbottom, Ernie Macmillan, Draco Malfoy, Padma Patil, Parvati Patil, Harry Potter, Dean Thomas, Ron Weasley, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Fred Weasley, George Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Quirinus Quirrell, Remus Lupin, Alastor Moody, Nymphadora Tonks, Lee Jordan, Kingsley Shacklebolt, Pansy Parkinson||Most of these were members of Dumbledore's Army, which contributed to their high scores.|
|This is the only course Harry Potter received an 'Outstanding' in and Hermione Granger didn't.|
|It is possible that Lyall Lupin achieved a O.W.L. in this subject, as he was world-renowned authority on Non-being Non-Human Spirituous Apparitions.|
|Divination||Parvati Patil, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Sybill Trelawney||Lavender Brown may also have achieved an O.W.L. in this subject, given that she and Parvati are usually mentioned as being the most enthusiastic, interested and diligent in this class.|
|Harry Potter failed this exam, given that it was his worst subject. Ron Weasley also failed this exam.|
|Herbology||Hannah Abbott, Hermione Granger, Neville Longbottom, Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, George Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Pomona Sprout, Herbert Beery||
Notably the only subject that George Weasley took that Fred Weasley did not. Evidently Fred failed Herbology.
|Neville Longbottom achieved an 'Outstanding' O.W.L.; Herbology is noted to be his best subject.|
|History of Magic||Hermione Granger, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Cuthbert Binns||As this is known to be an extremely boring subject, given Professor Binns' droning lecture style, most students find it impossible to pay any attention and thus almost impossible to get a good O.W.L. score on.|
|Harry Potter received a 'Dreadful' on this O.W.L., as he passed out halfway through the exam.|
|Muggle Studies||Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Arthur Weasley, Quirinus Quirrell, Charity Burbage||Although it is never confirmed that Arthur earned a pass in this subject, it is likely due to his fascination of Muggles and his work in the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office.|
|Potions||Terry Boot, Michael Corner, Hermione Granger, Ernie Macmillan, Draco Malfoy, Theodore Nott, Harry Potter, Ron Weasley, Blaise Zabini, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Severus Snape, Horace Slughorn, Alastor Moody, Kingsley Shacklebolt, Nymphadora Tonks||
Professor Snape's favouritism of Slytherin students may be part of the reason Slytherin students tend to do well in this subject. The students may have simply done well enough to get in, as seen by the example of Harry Potter whom Snape particularly hated.
|This may be a difficult subject to achieve an high O.W.L. score in. Only twelve students were able to make it to N.E.W.T.-level in 1996; four Ravenclaws, four Slytherins, three Gryffindors, and one Hufflepuff.|
|In the film version of Half-Blood Prince, many more students are seen studying N.E.W.T. level Potions. Interestingly, both Romilda Vane and Katie Bell are seen in this class, despite the fact that Romilda is a fourth year and Katie is a seventh year.|
|Lily Evans most likely achieved an high O.W.L. score in this subject, given that she had an instinctual understanding of potion-making.|
|Transfiguration||Lavender Brown, Seamus Finnigan, Hermione Granger, Neville Longbottom, Parvati Patil, Harry Potter, Dean Thomas, Ron Weasley, Fred Weasley, Draco Malfoy, Katie Bell, Cedric Diggory, Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, Barty Crouch, Jr, Albus Dumbledore, Minerva McGonagall, Nymphadora Tonks, Kingsley Shacklebolt, Alastor Moody||
Neville's 'Acceptable' O.W.L. did not qualify him for the N.E.W.T.-level.
|Notably the only subject that Fred Weasley took that George did not. Evidently George failed Transfiguration.|
|It is likely that the Marauders progressed to N.E.W.T.-level in this subject considering; Sirius Black and Remus Lupin were able to perform Untransfiguration on Peter Pettigrew, James Potter's wand was excellent for Transfiguration, and Pettigrew was able to perform conjuration, which is taught at N.E.W.T.-level.|
|It is possible that Augusta Longbottom received a high O.W.L. score in this subject, considering that she wanted her grandson Neville to take it at N.E.W.T.-level.|
All of the O.W.L.'s listed above (except for Neville's Transfiguration O.W.L., and possibly Harry's and Ron's Astronomy O.W.L.s) qualified for an advancement to N.E.W.T.-level classes.
Behind the scenes
- O.W.L.s are comparable to the formerly used Ordinary Levels (known as "O-Levels") that these exams appear to be named after, being taken around the same age and studied for two years before examination.
- In their Charms exam, students are called in order by last name, alphabetically. However, Harry Potter and Hannah Abbott are called at the same time for their Transfiguration exam, which may mean Transfiguration O.W.Ls are called in order of first name.
- The only known characters to receive all twelve O.W.L.s are Percy Weasley, Bill Weasley, and Barty Crouch Jr. However, in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, it is revealed that attempting this would cause a timetable clash; Minerva McGonagall had to write several letters to the Ministry in order to obtain a Time-Turner for Hermione Granger so that she would be able to attend all her classes when she attempted to take all twelve subjects in her third year (although she ultimately dropped two when she was not able to cope with so many subjects). Therefore, Percy, Bill, and Crouch Jr would have had to have done something similar to be able to study all twelve subjects too. However, it should be noted that Barty Crouch Jr obtaining twelve O.W.L.s was mentioned by his father during a bout of insane rambling due to the damage to his mind from fighting the Imperius Curse and could have been a delusional mistake on the part of Barty Crouch Snr. On the other hand, all three had parents connected in some way with the Ministry, so this is fairly plausible.
- Harry Potter and his year all begin studying for their O.W.L.S as early as the beginning of fourth year. It is unknown whether this is the case with other years at Hogwarts or if it was a precaution so students didn't forget their work whilst the Triwizard Tournament was being held.
- In third year in Danish it is known as A.L.N. (Almindeligt Troldmands Niveau) which is a directly translation of Ordinary Wizarding Level, but not directly translation of OWL. In fifth year in Danish, however it is known as U.G.L. (Udmærkelse for Genialitet og Lærevillighed) which needs an E to be a correct translation of O.W.L., this is not a direct translation of Ordinary Wizarding Level.
- In early editions of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Hermione Granger is said to receive eleven O.W.L.s, scoring ten O's and one E. However, after the events of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Hermione shrunk her class load from twelve subjects to ten, dropping both Divination and Muggle Studies. This was corrected in the Scholastic edition, where Ron instead states the she received nine O's and one E, giving her a total of ten O.W.L.s.
- It is interesting to note that the passing grades of O.W.L. exams are vowels (A, E, and O), while the failing grades are consonants (P, D, and T).
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film) (Mentioned only) (Not Danish)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince(Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film)(Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (video game)(Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows(Appears in flashback(s))
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (play)(Mentioned only)
Notes and references
|The Eleven Schools: Beauxbatons · Castelobruxo · Durmstrang · Hogwarts · Ilvermorny · Koldovstoretz · Mahoutokoro · Uagadou|
|Specialised schools: Academy of Broom Flying · Charm School · Euro-Glyph School of Extraordinary Languages · Merge School of Under-Water Spellage · Wizarding Academy of Dramatic Arts|
|Examinations: First year exams · Second year exams · Third year exams · Fourth year exams · Ordinary Wizarding Level · Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test|
|Core classes: Astronomy · Charms · Defence Against the Dark Arts · Herbology · History of Magic · Potions · Transfiguration|
|Elective classes: Alchemy · Arithmancy · Care of Magical Creatures · Divination · Muggle Studies · Study of Ancient Runes|
|Extra-curricular classes: Apparition · Advanced Arithmancy Studies · Ancient Studies · Art · Flying · Frog Choir · Ghoul Studies · Hogwarts orchestra · Magical Theory · Muggle Art · Muggle Music · Music · Xylomancy|