This was the first time a Maledictus was mentioned in the wizarding world franchise, though blood-related curses were mentioned before with the case of Astoria Malfoy.
It's unknown if a Werewolf is considered a Maledictus. Werewolves transform into beasts based on the moon phases and their wounds were described as cursed by Poppy Pomfrey. However, a possible difference between Maledictus and Werewolf Curses could be that the former not only cannot determine when they transform, but also cannot return to human form afterwards, whereas a Werewolf periodically shifts between forms based on the lunar phases.
It's unknown if a Muggle can carry the Maledictus curse.
Mal- is a prefix of Latin origin meaning "bad", "wrongful", or "ill". Dictus in Latin means "spoken".
Roughly translated, Maledictus could mean "spoken ill of" or "cursed."
A malediction is a magical word or phrase used with the intention to cause harm, aka a curse.