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Hovercharm

Hermione Granger using a Levitation Charm as a first year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry

"There was a lot more to magic, as Harry quickly found out, than waving your wand and saying a few funny words."
—Harry's thoughts about magic taught at Hogwarts[src]

Magic is a supernatural force that can alter the fabric of reality at fundamental levels, but with its limits. Biologically, magic is a genetic heredity that allows witches and wizards to practice sorcery.

The basic concepts of magic are fairly simple -- even a two-year-old wizard can do some form of magic -- but the inherent power and potential for misuse are great indeed. It is for this reason that promising young witches and wizards are sent off to Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and other schools of magic to refine their craft and learn the art and responsibility of their power. At Hogwarts, students learn a variety of magical specialties as well as general theory and the history of magic in their world.

Magic is unable to be performed by Muggles, as they are not born with it, and Squibs, who do not possess any magical powers despite having parents with magical powers. It is what sets Muggles apart from the wizarding world, as such, as a substitute of magic, Muggles use technology: in the same sense, many wizards are ignorant of the workings of most Muggle devices, including electricity. Both the Muggle and the wizard view their choice of tool as completely and utterly logical and ordinary, although each would find the other's tools fascinating and even mysterious.

As per the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy, wizards and witches must constantly hide their magic abilities from the Muggle world, and thus most Muggles are unaware that magic exists. It is possible that magic could be treated as the fourth branch of science, along with Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

Overview

Lumos

Harry Potter casting the Wand-Lighting Charm

"Elf magic isn't like wizard's magic, is it?"
—Ron Weasley[src]

In humans, the ability to perform magic or lack thereof is an inborn, genetic attribute. The former is the norm in the children of magical couples and rare in those of Muggles, this is because the wizarding gene (found in Wizards and Witches) is dominant, while the non-magical gene (found in Muggles and Squibs) is recessive. Those unable to do magic who are born to magical parents are known as Squibs, this is when the non-magical gene resurfaces causing the offspring to therefore be non-magical.

A witch or wizard born to Muggle parents are known as Muggle-borns. This is when a Muggle family is descended from a Squib, and the wizarding gene resurfaces many generations later. Muggle-borns are far more common than Squibs, but this may be a feature of the disparate sizes of the Muggle and wizarding populations. There are other magical beings in the Wizarding world which can also perform magic, such as house-elves and goblins. Fairies also possess a type of "weak magic." The house-elf Kreacher demonstrated the ability to disapparate from the kitchens of Hogwarts where humans cannot.

History

Not to be confused with History of Magic, a Hogwarts class.

The following chronology indicates broad eras in the history of the wizarding world and traces the development of the ever-widening gap between the Muggle and wizarding communities.

Early History

Ancient Egypt, India and Greece

Egyptian wizards put curses on tombs; nowadays curse-breakers for Gringotts Wizarding Bank try to regain the treasure locked in those tombs, one pyramid has mutant skeletons of Muggles who'd broken in and "grown extra heads and stuff." Magic is integrated into society and Wizards are held in high esteem. However, Dark Magic is already being practiced in ancient Greece. Herpo the Foul created the first basilisk as well as the evil magic of Horcruxes during that time.

Around 1000 AD

Salazar Slytherin WOTM

Salazar Slytherin

Growing distrust on the part of Muggles for wizards and witches compels the four greatest witches and wizards of the age to found Hogwarts. Salazar Slytherin builds the Chamber of Secrets after his point of view that only pure-blood wizards should be allowed into Hogwarts was dismissed. This separation of the two cultures continues and grows over the next 700 years.

1000 to 1300

The Wizarding world is governed by the Wizard's Council (sometimes referred to as the Warlock's Council). While the relationship with the Muggle world becomes more distrustful, witches and wizards reach out to others of their own kind. The Triwizard Tournament and Quidditch become national and international events.

1300s

Witch burnings; Muggles were particularly afraid of magic but not very good at recognizing it, Wendelin the Weird allowed herself to be burned at the stake 47 times in various disguises using a Flame-Freezing Charm as she enjoyed the sensation. There is growing discrimination in the Wizarding world against other magical beings, such as House-elves and Goblins.

15th century

1400s

TalesofBeedleCoverandSpine

The Tales of Beedle the Bard was written in this time period

With the coming of the Renaissance and the increasing reliance among Muggles on scientific reasoning, the break between the Wizarding and Muggle worlds is becoming more and more complete. Each culture goes on to create their own civilisation: social structures, economies, governments, etc. Each borrows a little from the other as the years go by but it becomes apparent that the Muggles must be kept ignorant of the existence of their magical kin for their own good.

Some Muggles persecute their magical neighbours, others try to exploit magical power for their own gain and for quick fixes to their problems. However, Britain still has court wizards (Nearly Headless Nick, for example, was a court wizard in 1492). Beedle the Bard writes his Tales to preach a message of tolerance toward Muggles, but his message is subverted or lost over the ensuing centuries as the division between Muggle and Wizard grew. With the intolerance of Muggles came a growing prejudice among some in Wizarding society in favour of the purity of blood. At the end of the 1400s, Daisy Dodderidge builds the Leaky Cauldron along a country path outside London as a portal between the Wizarding and Muggle worlds.

17th-18th Centuries

1600 - 1700s

Ministry of Magic busy

The Atrium of the Ministry of Magic, center of magical government

During these years, Goblin Rebellions break out all over Britain, and (perhaps not coincidentally) St. Mungo's Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries is established. Muggle persecution reaches an all-time high, and it is very dark times for the Magical Community. The governments of the Wizarding World meets to consider solutions to the crisis and create the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy of 1689 or 1692. This not only completes the separation of the two cultures but also lays the responsibility on the various Wizarding governments in each country for maintaining the secrecy of everything from Quidditch games to dragons.

Over the years, for Muggles, magic becomes the stuff of fairy tales and legend. By 1750 the Ministries of Magic from each country assume responsibility for the control and secrecy of their local magical flora and fauna (example, the Ministry of Magic of Great Britain. Wizarding families begin to cluster around small towns all over Britain where they find relative safety and anonymity.

1800s

Giants warred amongst themselves, bringing their species to the brink of extinction. In 1811, Grogan Stump reforms the Ministry of Magic. In 1881, Albus Dumbledore is born.

Recent Years

1900s

Voldemortfilm

Lord Voldemort, an accomplished Dark Wizard

Prejudice against Muggles and the ideas of Pure-blood supremacy is still very strong. These sentiments are manipulated by Tom Riddle as he becomes Lord Voldemort and makes two attempts to take over control of the Wizarding World in Britain. His first attempt, in the 1970s, is cut short in battle with James and Lily Potter and his defeat by Harry Potter (31 October 1981). The Giants, most of whom fought for Voldemort, retreat to northern Europe. Thirteen years later, Voldemort rises again (1994), takes over the Ministry of Magic and Hogwarts (1997), and is ultimately defeated by Harry Potter (2 May 1998).

Using magic

"I don't believe in witchcraft, though I've lost count of the number of times I've been told I'm a practicing witch. Ninety - let's say ninety five percent at least, of the magic in the books is entirely invented by me. And I've used things from folklore and I've used bits of what people used to believe worked magically just to add a certain flavour, but I've always twisted them to suit my own ends. I mean, I've taken liberties with folklore to suit my plot."
J. K. Rowling on the magic in her books
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Minerva McGonagall dueling Severus Snape with a fiery offensive spell

For a person's ability to perform magic to be useful, a good deal of training is required to acquire the correct discipline. When 'wild', typically with young and untrained children, it will still manifest itself subconsciously in moments of strong apprehension, fear or anger. A powerful or intelligent wizard or witch can direct this force in less random ways, e.g. Tom Riddle, Lily Evans, Severus Snape, Minerva McGonagall, and possibly Ariana Dumbledore.

It should be noted that, whilst the ability to perform magic almost always reveals itself by age 11, there are some individuals who remain mundane until quite late in life when - in quite desperate circumstances - they suddenly reveal their magical capacity. However, such "late-bloomers" are rare, possibly more so than squibs[1].

Stupefy-harry-potter

Harry Potter, Hermione Granger, and Ronald Weasley casting the Stunning Spell during the Luchino Caffe Duel

Almost all human magic is done with the use of a supporting tool or focus, typically a wand. One can do unfocused and uncontrolled magic without a wand. A few advanced wizards could perform directed magic without a wand. A wizard or witch is only at their best when using their own wand. When using another's wand , one's spells are not as strong as they normally would be, due to the laws of Wandlore.

Limits

Regardless of how powerful a witch or wizard is, they are by no means without limits. For example, true love is almost impossible to create magically, though Amortentia, a love potion, can create a powerful sense of infatuation. The following are some of the limits of magical abilities:

Rule of Conjuration: While it is possible to conjure things out of thin air, it is far more tricky to create something that fits an exact specification rather than a general one; moreover, any objects so conjured tend not to last.

Rule Against Resurrection: It is also impossible to resurrect the dead. Corpses can be transformed into obedient Inferi on a living wizard's command, though they are little more than zombies with no soul or will of their own. It is also possible via the rare Priori Incantatem effect to converse with ghost-like "shadows" of magically murdered people. The Resurrection Stone also allows one to talk to the dead, but those brought back by the Stone are not corporeal, nor do they wish to be disturbed from their peaceful rest. The result of such a summoning is usually detrimental to the summoner.

's Stone

The Philosopher's Stone, which grants the user eternal life

Rule Against Immortality: Likewise, it is impossible to make oneself immortal unless one makes use of a mystical object of great power to sustain life (such as the Philosopher's Stone created by Nicolas Flamel or a Horcrux, the latter having been used by Lord Voldemort and Herpo the Foul). Legend holds that if one were to possess the three Deathly Hallows, these tools would enable the possessor to become the "master of death". However, being a true "master of death" means being willing to accept that death is inevitable. Becoming a ghost is also an option for wizards and witches; however, it is said that it is "a pale imitation of life". Whether or not ghosts are truly sentient beings possessed of an independent existence is unclear; Snape states that a ghost is merely "the imprint of a departed soul left upon the earth".

Principal Exceptions to Gamp's Law of Elemental Transfiguration

The Principal Exceptions to Gamp's Law of Elemental Transfiguration are mentioned by Ronald Weasley in the final book and by Hermione in Transfiguration class. Food is one of these: witches or wizards can cook and prepare food using magic, but not create it from nothing. Out of the five exceptions, only food is mentioned explicitly in the series although speculation amongst fans has proposed many other possibilities. There is a strong possiblity that money is another exception, since if wizards could simply materialise money out of thin air the economic system of the Wizarding world would be seriously disrupted. While the Philosopher's Stone does permit alchemy (including, presumably, turning base metals into gold), the Stone is an extremely rare, even unique, object, whose owner does not exploit its powers.

There are numerous examples in the series of food appearing to have been conjured from nothing, such as the sudden materialisation of ingredients in the pots of Molly Weasley's kitchen and when Professor McGonagall creates a self-refilling plate of sandwiches for Harry and Ron in. In all cases, these events can be reasonably explained as food either being multiplied — which is allowable under Gamp's Law, according to Hermione — or transported from elsewhere. One example of this is Banqueting in Hogwarts — the food is prepared by elves in the kitchens and laid onto four replica tables, directly below the actual house tables in the Great Hall. The food is then magically transported to the tables.

Magic and emotions

Tonks-Patronus

Nymphadora Tonks's werewolf Patronus

A witch or wizard's emotional state can affect their inherent abilities. For example, Nymphadora Tonks temporarily lost her power as a Metamorphmagus after suffering severe emotional turmoil and sadness over her grief for the death of Sirius Black, and when Remus Lupin would not return her affections. In effect, the form of her Patronus changed to reflect her love for him. The form of her Patronus changed to reflect her depression. In 1995, when Mad-Eye called her by her first name, her hair temporarily turned red. Wizardkind are also weakened when in the presence of Dementors for prolonged periods, as said creatures attack their prey psychlogically by making them recall their worst memories, leaving the victims physically vulnerable.

As related to Harry by Dumbledore during Harry Potter and Albus Dumbledore's private lessons, Merope Gaunt only demonstrated any magical ability when removed from her father's oppression, but then seemed to lose it again when her husband abandoned her. Many other examples of emotion-influenced magic appear throughout the series, with Ariana Dumbledore (Dumbledore's sister) being emotionally scarred at a young age and then her magic turned volatile and uncontrolled. In addition, Harry magically inflated his Aunt Marge wandlessly and non-verbally, out of sheer anger when she disrespected his parents by calling his father a drunk.

Several magical spells involve the use of emotion when casting them. The Patronus Charm, for example, requires the caster to concentrate on a happy memory. Force of will under extenuating circumstances also helps in casting spells, and affects the force with which they are cast. An example of this is when Harry is able to conjure a corporeal Patronus when Sirius Black is in danger of being administered the Dementor's Kiss.

Another example of magic and emotions is when Ron Weasley caused it to snow above him with his wand when he felt guilt over breaking up with Lavender Brown without using any worded spells.

Magic and death

The Horcrux

Lord Voldemort's Horcruxes.

The phenomenon of Death is studied in detail in a room (called the Death Chamber) of the Department of Mysteries containing an enigmatic veil. Sirius Black falls through this veil after he is hit with a curse from Bellatrix Lestrange, and dies; i.e. the veil represents the boundary between the living and dead worlds.

There are a few magical techniques that have been used to extend life. The Philosopher's Stone can be used to prepare a potion that postpones death for the rest of eternity, so long as the potion is drunk on a regular basis. Voldemort has availed himself of other methods, being one of the few wizards ever to use Horcruxes in his long sought attempt to "conquer death", and is believed to be the only one to use multiple Horcruxes.

In addition, the drinking of Unicorn Blood will keep a person alive even if death is imminent, but at the terrible price of being cursed forever. Being magical can contribute to one's longevity, as there are several characters in the series who are quite long-lived (such as Albus Dumbledore, Bathilda Bagshot, and Griselda Marchbanks, who was an invigilator during Albus Dumbledore's O.W.L examinations). This can mainly be attributed to the speed and effectiveness of magical healing, such as spells that can mend bones instantly, potions that can completely regrow them, further potions that can cure many sicknesses and ailments including the Common Cold, spells for instantaneous, scarless healing, and transportation to hospitals being a matter of a few seconds and a side-along apparator or a handful of Floo powder.

Bloody Baron - Hogwarts-Ghost

A Ghost of Hogwarts, the Bloody Baron

It is revealed by Nearly Headless Nick in the fifth book that all witches and wizards have the choice of becoming ghosts when they pass away. The alternative is "passing on". Nick says that he became a ghost because he was foolish, "afraid of death".

All Hogwarts headmasters appear in a portrait when they die, allowing consultation by future generations. Dumbledore says that there is no spell that can truly bring the dead back to life, however several cases of dead people becoming half-alive are known. Because of a connection between Harry and Voldemort's wands (Priori Incantatem), images of Voldemort's recent victims appear and help Harry escape. According to Harry, they seemed too solid to be ghosts.

While wizards can linger as ghosts or animate dead bodies as Inferius servants, no magic is capable of bringing a dead person back to full and true life. The closest possible is the Resurrection Stone.

Magic and love

Main article: Love

Arguably the most powerful branch of magic is also the most mysterious and elusive: love. Lord Voldemort, having never experienced love himself, underestimated its influence—to his detriment. It was through love that Lily Evans was able to save her son Harry from death by sacrificing her life, so that he might live.

Severus Snape casting a Patronus

Severus Snape's Patronus was a doe, symbolizes his deep love for Lily Evans

Because of his mother's protection, Harry was unable to be touched by Voldemort. Voldemort attempted to overcome this obstacle by using Harry's blood in his resurrection; however, since Lily's magical protection was in Harry's blood and his blood now flowed through Voldemort's new body, this actually meant that Harry could not be killed by Voldemort while Voldemort himself was still alive. Harry used very much the same mechanism of sacrificial protection to negate the power of Voldemort's spells against the students and teachers of Hogwarts. The exact nature of how "love-magic" works is unknown; it is studied in-depth at the Department of Mysteries where they have a giant cauldron of Amortentia.

It is implied that the inability to love is what make Voldemort as evil as he is. Severus Snape, who voluntarily joined the Death Eaters on leaving Hogwarts, turns spy for the Order of the Phoenix when he realizes that the woman he loves is being threatened by Voldemort. Similarly, Narcissa Malfoy’s love for her son Draco eventually leads her to betray Voldemort, directly leading to Harry’s survival – another oversight on Voldemort’s part. With these examples, it is hinted that anybody with the ability to love cannot go as far down the path of evil as Voldemort has done, and it is his complete lack of compassion that makes him capable of what he does.

Spellcasting

"I love magic."
—Harry Potter[src]
DH1 Hermione Granger using memory charm spell

Hermione Granger casting a Memory Charm with her wand

Spells are the every-purpose tools of a wizard or witch; short bursts of magic used to accomplish single specialised tasks such as opening locks or creating fire. Typically casting requires an incantation, most often in a modified form of Latin, and gesturing with a wand. However, these seem to be aids to the will only; wands are in most cases required, but there are indications that sufficiently advanced witches and wizards can perform spells without them. Spells can also be cast non-verbally, but with a wand. This technique is taught in the sixth year of study at Hogwarts and requires the caster to concentrate on the incantation.

Some spells (e.g. Levicorpus) are apparently designed to be used non-verbally. While most magic shown in the books requires the caster to use their voice, some do not (and this may depend on the witch or wizard). Dumbledore has been known to do impressive feats of magic without speaking, such as conjuring enough squashy purple sleeping bags to accommodate the entire student population or during his duel with Voldemort in the Atrium.

20110806-js-hpoop-bombarda-maxima

The spell "Bombarda Maxima" being used by Dolores Umbridge

It is evidently also possible to use a wand without holding it. Harry himself performs Lumos to light his wand when it is lying on the ground somewhere near him. Additionally, Animagi and Metamorphagi do not need wands to undergo their transformations.

Spells are divided into rough categories, such as "charm", "curse", "hexes", or "jinxes". Although offensive and potentially dangerous curses exist in number, three are considered usable only for great evil, which earns them the special classification of "Unforgivable Curses".

Study of magic

Snape Using Diasarming Spell

Severus Snape casting a Disarming Charm

As magic is what governs the wizarding world, there are many people who make it their business to study the magical arts, as well as magic being taught to young witches and wizards. Main fields of magical study taught at the magical school of Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry are Arithmancy, Charms, Dark Arts, Divination, Herbology, Legilimency/Occlumency, Potions, and Transfiguration. Types of wizards with special magical abilities include Animagi (wizards who can turn into animals), Arithmancer, a Legilimens (one who can penetrate other's mind), an Occlumens (one who can protect their mind from external penetration), Metamorphmagi (wizards who can change their physical appearance), a Parselmouth (one who can converse with snakes), and a Seer (one who can predict the future). There are also different forms of offensive/defensive magic, as well as the various types of spells: curse, hex, and jinx.

Arithmancy

Main article: Arithmancy

Arithmancy is a branch of magic that is concerned with the magical properties of numbers; someone who practices Arithmancy is called an Arithmancer. For example, in the 1200s, Bridget Wenlock, a famous Arithmancer, discovered the magical properties of the number seven. An O.W.L in Arithmancy is required to apply for a curse-breaker's job at Gringotts.

Arithmancy at Hogwarts is taught by Professor Vector. In her class, students are expected to write essays and to be able to understand complicated number charts, which are part of their homework. Hermione Granger appears to be the only Gryffindor in her year who attempted an O.W.L in this subject (which is her favorite).

Charms

Main article: Charms
Luna's Patronus

Luna Lovegood casting a Patronus Charm, a complex piece of magic

Charms are a type of magic spell concerned with enchanting an object to behave in a way that isn't normal for that object. For example, the Summoning Charm brings an object to the caster. Charms is also something of a catch-all for spells that aren't Transfiguration (spells that change the inherent nature of an object). In some sense, if a spell isn't Transfiguration, it's probably a Charm.

A Charm might cause something to flash different colors. It might cause an object to levitate or even fly through the air. Charms can make a person laugh or dance or even create a bubble of breathable air around a person's head. In all of these cases, the object or the person doesn't really change, they just do something unexpected. Some Charms can be extremely powerful. The Fidelius Charm, for example, can completely hide a person or a place in such a way that no one can find them unless they are given the location by a Secret-Keeper. Memory Charms can be so strong that they completely remove a person's memory or even damage his or her mind permanently.

Charm spells are in some ways the opposite of Curses: many Charms seem to have an inherent positive tone (e.g. Tickling Charm) while Curses have an inherent negative one. This is not to say that Charms are weaker magic; a well-chosen Charm is a powerful magical tool against curses, jinxes, and hexes. Professor Flitwick, the Hogwarts Charms teacher, was rumoured to have once been a duelling champion, after all.

Dark Arts

Main article: Dark Arts
Avada

Severus Snape casting the Killing Curse

The Dark Arts differ from other forms of magic in the intent of the wizard using it. Most magic is relatively neutral--it can be used for bad or good. Some magic, however, is evil in its intention through and through. Spells of this kind are often called curses. Curses are spells that are often intended to cause harm to another person. This intention to do harm places that spell into the realm of the Dark Arts. However, simply casting a Curse spell doesn't mean that a person is using the Dark Arts. Ultimately, the deep, true intention of the caster is what makes the difference.

This is a difficult distinction to make in many cases. However, understanding the difference between acceptable and Dark magic is of key importance for witches and wizards in training, which is why Defence Against the Dark Arts is such an important class for students at Hogwarts. Some other schools have a reputation for teaching the Dark Arts, not simply Defence Against the Dark Arts; Durmstrang is such a school.

Divination

Main article: Divination
Divination professor

Sybill Trelawney with a crystal ball

Divination is magic which attempts to foresee future events. Many in the wizarding world consider this branch of magic to be imprecise at best. There are several types of Divination. The most imprecise is what is commonly known as "fortunetelling," and this is what Trelawney teaches at Hogwarts. The second kind of Divination is what is practiced by the centaurs. When Firenze started teaching Divination classes in the spring of 1996, he taught these techniques, although they were mostly lost on the human students in his classes.

The third type of Divination is called Seeing. This is true Divination, although what the Seer reveals is usually in the form of a Prophecy which then itself requires some interpretation. A Seer, one who possesses the Inner Eye, doesn't seem to have control over their Seeing. Trelawney, for example, only made actual Prophecies three times, although she made plenty of claims about everything from troubles ahead for various students to Neville breaking a teacup. In each case when she made an actual Prophecy, Trelawney went into a trance and spoke in a completely different voice, and after speaking the Prophecy, she didn't remember a thing about it.

True Seeing is very rare, but it has happened plenty of times over the centuries. There is a huge cathedral-sized room of the Department of Mysteries where records of thousands of Prophecies are stored in glass spheres. Each sphere is labeled with the initials of the Seer who spoke the Prophecy and the person it was spoken to and with the subject of the Prophecy.

Herbology

Main article: Herbology
Herbology88

A Herbology class

Herbology is the study of magical plants and fungi, including their care and their magical properties and uses. Some magical plants form important ingredients in potions, others have magical effects in their own right.

At Hogwarts, all students are required to attempt an O.W.L. in Herbology, so all first through fifth year students take the class, which is taught by Professor Sprout. Herbology classes are held in the greenhouses and include plenty of hands-on activities, including pruning alihotsy bushes, repotting mandrakes, and harvesting bubotuber pus. Students are also assigned essays as homework. Some time in the 2000s the post for herbology was taken by Neville Longbottom since before the start of the 2017 school year Ginny Potter (née Weasley) told her son James Sirius Potter to give her love to Neville.

Legilimency/Occlumency

Main article: Legilimency
Legilimens 786x442

Harry's mind being invaded by Snape during their Occlumency lessons

Legilimency, a branch of magic not normally taught at Hogwarts (at least, not at Ordinary Wizarding Level) is the ability to extract emotions and memories from another person's mind. Although the word literally translates as 'mind-reading,' this is considered a naive interpretation of the art by its practitioners. Someone who practices Legilimency is known as a Legilimens.

Legilimency is easier when the spell-caster is physically near the target, and when the target is off-guard, relaxed, or otherwise vulnerable. Eye contact is often essential, so it is useful for a Legilimens to verbally manipulate his or her target into meeting the Legilimens' eyes, with the fringe benefit that the target's emotional state may bring relevant associated memories to the surface. All of this seems to tally quite nicely with what is known of the nature of human memory in Muggle science. The only known defence against Legilimency is Occlumency or the Protective Charm (Protego). The incantation required for it is Legilimens. Some well-known legilimens are Albus Dumbledore, Lord Voldemort and Severus Snape.

Snape teaching Occulemency

Occlumens Severus Snape preparing to invade Harry's mind, while trying to teach Harry to resist it

Main article: Occlumency

Occlumency is the art of magically defending the mind against external penetration, sealing it against magical intrusion and influence - the defensive counter to Legilimency. A practitioner of Occlumency is referred to as an Occlumens.

Occlumency is a necessary prerequisite to defeat a Legilimens' lie-detector abilities without suspicious behaviour such as avoiding face-to-face contact and eye contact. Elementary Occlumency involves clearing the mind of thought and emotion, so that the Legilimens can find no emotional ties to memories that the target wishes to conceal. Simple resistance to attack requires similar skills to those needed to resist the Imperius Curse. In its more advanced form, Occlumency allows the user to suppress only feelings and memories that contradict what the user wishes a Legilimens to believe, thus allowing the Occlumens to lie without self-betrayal. Some well-known practioners of Occlumency were Albus Dumbledore and Severus Snape.

Potions

Draco potions sixth year 1

Draco Malfoy and fellow Slytherins in a Potions class

Main article: Potions

Potions are magical liquids created by mixing various ingredients in a cauldron according to very specific rules. These mixtures must usually be drunk to give their magical effect. The ingredients in potions range from the mundane to the bizarre and fantastic, and the procedures for creating some potions can be complicated and time-consuming. Potions class is taught at Hogwarts, and Severus Snape was the Potions Master at Hogwarts from c. 1980 to the fall of 1996. Horace Slughorn took over as Potions Master for the 1996-1997 school year. The Potions classroom at Hogwarts is located in a chilly, dark dungeon.

Transfiguration

Main article: Transfiguration
FeraVerto

Fera Verto, a Transfiguration spell

Transfiguration is magic which changes one object into another. It is possible to change inanimate objects into animate ones and vice versa. Some Transfiguration spells alter a part of something, such as changing a person's ears from normal into rabbit ears. At Hogwarts, Transfiguration is taught by Professor McGonagall. Fifty years ago, Albus Dumbledore was the Transfiguration teacher at Hogwarts.

Transfiguration spells were cast in ancient times as well. Circe, a witch who lived on the Greek island of Aeaea, was famous for turning lost sailors into pigs. The opposite of Transfiguration is Untransfiguration, which would be returning something to its proper form (OP29).

History of Magic

Main article: History of Magic

Many witches and wizards study the history of magic throughout time; they are known as magical historians, and History of Magic is also a class taught at Hogwarts. One of the most celebrated magical historians of all time is Bathilda Bagshot, author of A History of Magic, which chronicals the entire history of the magical world up till the end of the First Wizarding War. It remains a standard Hogwarts textbook for this study. The subject has been taught by Professor Cuthbert Binns since the 1700' till present day. The History of Magic is taken in the classroom 4F in Hogwarts.

The Wizarding world

The wizarding society exists as a shadow society to the Muggle world and works as hard as it can to keep its existence a secret, save for all but a few Muggles, such as those who are related to witches and wizards, or important Muggles such as the Prime Minister. To most magical people the Muggle world is unknown, and their attempts to disguise themselves as Muggles often have mostly humourous results. Muggle Studies at Hogwarts is considered a soft option. Most things of magical nature are hidden or otherwise obscured from Muggles; others (such as Dementors) simply cannot be seen by them, but Muggles do feel the effects of them. There is also an office in the Ministry of Magic, for the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts, that deals with people charming objects typically found in a Muggle society. The International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy was established in 1689 by the International Confederation of Wizards to safeguard wizards from persecution at the hands of Muggles.

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