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List of spells

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The following is a list of known spells that are employed by the Wizarding world.



Accio (Summoning Charm)

Pronunciation: Various suggestions have been made:
['ɑkkio] (AK-ee-o) - English (film)
['akkio] (AK-ee-o) - Proper Latin
['accio] (A-see-o) - English (film)
['ɑksio] (AK-see-o) - (audio-book)

Accio Portkey

Description: This charm summons an object to the caster, potentially over a significant distance. It can be used in two ways: by casting the charm, and then naming the object desired ("Accio Firebolt"), or by pointing the wand at the desired object during or immediately following the incantation to "pull" it toward the user. In either case, the caster must concentrate upon the object they wish to summon in order for the charm to succeed. The caster doesn't necessarily need to know the location if they say the name of the object to be summoned. This is proven when Hermione Granger explains in 1997 that she summoned the Horcrux books from Dumbledore's office by merely saying "Accio Horcrux books!" while in Gryffindor Tower.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter summoned his broom to complete the first task of the Triwizard Tournament in 1994, as well as to summon the Portkey to escape Lord Voldemort and the Death Eaters in the Little Hangleton Graveyard in 1995. It failed to summon Horcruxes in 1997, and Harry failed to summon a falling Rubeus Hagrid. It was also used as a quicker way to find objects in Hermione's depth-enlarged beaded handbag, and was used as a quick and effective way of fishing ("Accio salmon").
Notes The summoning charm is limited only to items and small animals, as it has been shown incapable of summoning people. And it is still possible for items to be enchanted so as to be impossible to summon, like Horcruxes and Harry's Cloak of Invisibility.
Etymology: The Latin word accio means "I call" or "I summon"

(Age-Line Spell)


The age line surrounding the Goblet of fire

Description: Creates a line that is impassable by people below a set age.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Albus Dumbledore to stop under-age students from entering their names into the Goblet of Fire.
Notes: The Age-Line is impassable even by users of age-potions (proven by Fred and George Weasley). Thus, it functions on either calendar or mental age, not physical age.


Aguamenti 786x786

Aguamenti Charm

Pronunciation: AH-gua-MEN-tee
Description: Produces a jet of water from the tip of a wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Fleur Delacour in 1994 to put out her skirt, which had caught fire during her challenge against a dragon. Harry used it twice in 1997: Once in an attempt to give Dumbledore a drink in the Horcrux cave, which did not work, and again to douse Hagrid's hut after it was set on fire by Thorfinn Rowle using the spell Incendio.
Etymology: Possibly an extension of Spanish words agua (aqua) ("water") and mente ("mind").

Alarte Ascendare


Alarte Ascendare used by Gilderoy Lockhart to launch a snake into the air in the Duelling Club.

Pronunciation: A-LAR-tey ah-SEN-deh-Rey
Description: Shoots an object or creature into the air
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Gilderoy Lockhart at the Duelling Club in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.
Etymology: Ascendare is a Latin verb meaning 'to climb' or 'to ascend'.

(Albus Dumbledore's forceful spell)

Description: This spell was told to be very very powerful since when Dumbledore cast this spell, Voldemort couldn't bear the power of it so he conjured a silver shield to deflect it. When the spell hit the shield, 'a deep, gong-like note reverberated from it-an oddly chilling sound'.
Seen/Mentioned: This spell was seen once used by Dumbledore in the Ministry of Magic, during the Battle of the Department of Mysteries on 17 June, 1996, while he dueled with Voldemort.



Alohomora used by Hermione in 1991.

Pronunciation: al-lo-ha-MOR-ah (Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone) or aluh-huh-MORA (video games)
Description: Used to open and unlock doors. It is not effective on doors bewitched to resist this spell. The spell can also unseal doors upon which the Colloportus spell has been cast.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger in 1991 on the forbidden Third Floor Corridor door at Hogwarts, and, in the Prisoner of Azkaban book, to unlock Sirius's cell in Azkaban. Also used in Pottermore.
Etymology: Alohomora is derived from the West African Sidiki dialect used in geomancy meaning: Friendly to thieves as stated by J.K. Rowling in testimony during the WB and JKR vs. RDR Books. [1]
Notes: In the books, when Alohomora is used, the lock/door must be tapped three times.


Pronunciation: ah-NAP-nee-oh
Description: Clears the target's airway if it is blocked.
Seen/Mentioned: Professor Slughorn cast this on Marcus Belby when he choked in 1996.
Etymology: From the Greek verb anapneo, "I breathe in". Compare apnea. Anapneo and Episkey are the first spells obviously derived from Greek.


Description: An Anti-Jinx is a type of spell that prevents the effects of a jinx over one target object or animal.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

Anteoculatia (Antler spell)

Pronunciation: an-TAY-oh-KYOO-lay-shuh
Description: Anteoculatia is a hex that turns a person's hair into antlers.
Seen/Mentioned: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.
Notes: This may be the incantation of the spell that was used to make Pansy Parkinson grow antlers in 1996.

(Anti-Cheating spell)

Description: Cast on parchment to prevent the writer from cheating while writing answers.
Seen/Mentioned: Near exam times at Hogwarts.

(Anti-Disapparition Jinx)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Used to prevent Disapparition in an area for a time. Presumably can be used to prevent an enemy from entering a defended area, or used to trap an enemy in an area.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Albus Dumbledore in 1996 during the Death Eater attack on the Department of Mysteries. It is also mentioned that no one can apparate in the Hogwarts premises. It is due to this jinx.

(Antonin Dolohov's curse)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Causes severe internal injury; potentially lethal. The exact effects are unknown, but because of its danger, it is probably a Dark curse.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Death Eater Antonin Dolohov during the Battle of the Department of Mysteries. He severely injured Hermione Granger with this curse; she was incapacitated instantly and had to take ten potions every day for some time in order to recover.
Notes: This curse is less effective when used non-verbally, but it still causes significant harm, at least when used by an accomplished caster. Also, Hermione had the added benefit of a hastily cast Shield Charm by Harry Potter which may have also lessened the damage caused.(could be the incantation "axelo")


Pronunciation: AH-par-EE-see-um
Description: This spell makes invisible ink, and perhaps invisible items in general, appear.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in 1993, when Hermione Granger tried to make any hidden writing appear in Tom Riddle's Diary.
Etymology: Latin apparere, "to appear"; -ium and -cium are common Latin noun endings.
Notes: See also Specialis Revelio.


Remus OOTP

Remus Lupin apparating

Description: Causes the user to magically teleport from one place to another. It is imprecise over long distances. A licence is needed to perform on one's own at the age of 17. If done incorrectly, the user can splinch themselves, causing a part of their body to be separated and left behind.
Seen/Mentioned: Used throughout the series. Harry and his classmates took Apparition Class in 1997.
Notes: No incantation, Hand Movement: Turn on the spot while remembering the 3 D's, which stand for destination, determination and deliberation.

Aqua Eructo

Aqua Eructo
Description: Aqua Eructo is a spell used to create a jet of clear water, and then control it.
Seen/Mentioned: from the video game adaptation of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Etymology: "Aqua" means, in Latin, "Water". "Eructo" is the verb "I raise". "Aqua Eructo" means, roughly translated: "I Raise Water"

Arania Exumai

Arania Exumai 2
Pronunciation: ah-rahn-ee-a eks-su-may
Description: This curse is used to kill or, at least, blast back Acromantulas or other large spider species.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry uses this in the Forbidden Forest against the attacking Acromantulas in the film version of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. He learned this from Tom Marvolo Riddle, who attempted to use it against Aragog in the memory Harry visits.
Etymology: From the Latin aranea, meaning “spider”, and exuo, meaning “I lay aside”.

Aresto Momentum


Dumbledore saving Harry Potter.

Pronunciation: ah-REST-oh mo-MEN-tum
Description: Used to slow down an object or being that is moving. It should be noted that it can be used in multiple targets and in the caster himself.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Dumbledore to save Harry Potter from a fall in the film version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. It was used again by Hermione Granger to cushion an otherwise deadly fall of her and four others in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2.
Etymology: Likely the combination of two words; the Anglo-French arester, meaning "To bring to a stop", and the Latin Momentum, meaning "The force or strength gained whilst moving." Literal translation: "Bring its momentum to a stop."

(Armour-bewitching spell)

Description: Causes suits of armour to sing carols.
Seen/Mentioned: This spell was used by the staff at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry to bewitch suits of armour so that they sang Christmas carols whenever someone walked past during the Christmas season in 1994.

(Arrow-shooting spell)

Description: Fires arrows from the caster's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: The spell was usually used by Appleby Arrows supporters at Quidditch matches to show their support for their teams, however, the British and Irish Quidditch League Headquarters banned the use of the spell at matches when referee Nugent Potts was pierced through the nose with a stray arrow in 1894.


Ascendio GOF 2
Pronunciation: Ah-SEN-DI-oh
Description: Lifts the caster high into the air.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry Potter in the Second Task to lift him to the surface of the water in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire.
Etymology: Coming from Latin ascendo, meaning "to climb".[2]

Avada Kedavra (Killing Curse)

Main article: Unforgivable Curses

Voldemort using the Killing Curse to murder Lily Potter.

Pronunciation: ah-VAH-dah keh-DAV-rah (IPA: /ə.'væ.də kə.'dæv.ɹə/)
Description: Causes a bright green flash and a rushing noise; the curse causes instant death to the victim. There is no known counter-curse or blocking spell (with the exception of the curse striking another spell mid-flight, negating both), although the caster can be interrupted, the victim can dodge the green jet, hide behind solid objects (which burst into flame when hit by it), or, if the casting wizard is not sufficiently competent, the curse may be completely ineffective as described by Barty Crouch Jr. (acting as Alastor Moody) in Goblet of Fire. Harry twice countered this spell by casting Expelliarmus. It is one of the three Unforgivable Curses; the punishment of the use of this spell on another human being is capital punishment or life sentence in Azkaban.

The magical conditions have also been documented to defeat the curse, even on a direct hit:

  • Harry Potter was given magical protection against Lord Voldemort's use of the curse, when his mother sacrificed herself to save him.
  • Harry is the only person in the history of the magical world to have ever survived a direct hit to the killing curse.
  • Harry is saved by the twin cores effect between his wand and Voldemort's during a duel, as well as during a battle. During this battle, Harry's phoenix feather wand snaps the wand Voldemort borrowed from one of his servants, Lucius Malfoy. The reason for this is unknown. Dumbledore believes this feat to be due to the unique connections and relationships between the two duellists, which are complex and are "realms of magic hitherto unknown".
  • In Deathly Hallows, Harry is saved twice. The 1st time because when Voldemort tried to kill Harry as a baby, a piece of Voldemort's soul flaked off and was trapped within Harry himself (giving Harry a connection to, and many of the powers of, Voldemort). When the killing curse hit Harry in the Forbidden Forest, it killed the piece of Voldemort's soul trapped in Harry, and sent Harry to a nether region where Voldemort's use of Harry's blood gave Harry a lifeline back to the world of the living, should he choose to use it, and he decided to return to life. The second time, Harry was able to deflect the curse back at Voldemort (who died from it) because of a special condition involving the Elder Wand. This had been 'won' by Draco when he disarmed Dumbledore of his wand, but none understood this at the time, and Draco did not use the Elder Wand. Harry had won Draco's wand in a life-or-death duel, thereby proving to the Elder Wand that Harry should be the wand's true master. Therefore, when Harry used Draco's wand to cast Expelliarmus against Voldemort's Killing Curse, the killing curse rebounded on Voldemort leaving Harry unharmed and killing Voldemort once and for all.
Avada Kedavra

Battle of Hogwarts

Seen/Mentioned: First said (not by name) at the beginning of the first book when Harry arrives at the Dursley's home. First seen in The Philosopher's Stone, during the flashback while Hagrid described Harry's parent's deaths Voldemort is seen killing Lily Evans, next in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film) when Harry Potter freed Dobby, Lucius Malfoy attempted to use it on Harry before Dobby stopped him, in Goblet of Fire against Muggle Frank Bryce and the Wizard Cedric Diggory, and in every book following. It is noted that while Harry has used every other Unforgivable Curse successfully he has never used the Killing Curse. Molly Weasley used this curse only in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 which shriveled up Bellatrix.
Suggested Etymology: During an audience interview at the Edinburgh Book Festival (15 April 2004) Rowling said: "Does anyone know where avada kedavra came from? It is an ancient spell in Aramaic, and it is the original of abracadabra, which means 'let the thing be destroyed.' Originally, it was used to cure illness and the 'thing' was the illness, but I decided to make it the 'thing' as in the person standing in front of me. I take a lot of liberties with things like that. I twist them round and make them mine."[3]


Pronunciation: AVI-forz
Description: Turns inanimate objects into birds.
Seen/mentioned: The Harry Potter video games.
Etymology: From Latin avis meaning "bird" and fors meaning "luck".


Pronunciation: AY-vis
Description: A flock of birds comes out of the wand. When coupled with Oppugno, it can be used offensively.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in 1994 by Mr. Ollivander to test Viktor Krum's wand. Also employed by Hermione in 1996, along with Oppugno against Ron Weasley.
Etymology: The Latin avis means "bird".


(Babbling Curse)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: The Babbling Curse is not fully understood but it is presumed to cause a person to babble whenever they try to speak.
Seen/Mentioned: According to Gilderoy Lockhart, he once cured a Transylvanian villager of this affliction, but as he proved an untrustworthy source of information, it is possible the curse does not exist at all. However, the curse itself may exist, but it could be that someone else cured the said villager.

(Bat-Bogey Hex)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Grotesquely enlarges the target's bogies, gives them wings, and sets them attacking the target.
Seen/Mentioned: Ginny Weasley is a noted practitioner of this hex, and used it on Draco Malfoy to facilitate her, Ron, Luna and Neville’s escape from the Inquisitorial Squad in 1996, and later on Zacharias Smith when he persistently questioned her about what happened during the Battle of the Department of Mysteries.
Notes: This may also be the "Curse of the Bogies" mentioned by Ron in 1991 as a potential punishment should either Hermione or Neville get him and Harry in trouble. However, "bogey" can also mean a monster or a spectre, to which said curse might be referring.


Pronunciation:' baw-BILL-ee-us
Description: Unknown. Creates a bright bolt of white light from the tip of the wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Only in the Harry Potter TCG.
Etymology: From the English, bauble? Etymology unclear.
Notes: Judging by the incantation it is possibly the spell used by Filius Flitwick to decorate the Hogwarts Christmas Tree with Christmas baubles.

(Bedazzling Hex)

Description: Similar to a Disillusionment Charm, it can be used to conceal a person or an object.
Seen/Mentioned: By Xenophilius Lovegood in 1998 when describing how the Cloak of Invisibility is the only thing that can make a person truly invisible, not requiring a Disillusionment Charm or a Bedazzling Hex.
Notes: Is used to make invisibility cloaks, although those cloaks aren't true cloaks of invisibility. It is not sure what the difference is between a Disillusionment Charm and a Bedazzling Hex. A Disillusionment Charm, would appear to simply make the target blend in very well with the surroundings whereas the Bedazzling Hex, given its name might possible mess directly with the eyes of anyone looking at the cloak wearer, so they would not appear to be there. Both the word bedazzling (bedazzle means cleverly outwit) and the hex part of the name suggest this.

(Bellatrix Lestrange's spell)

Bellatrix curse
Description: Produces a burst of blue light and causes windows to shatter.
Seen/Mentioned: Was used by Bellatrix Lestrange to shatter the windows and blow out the candles in the Great Hall in her insane celebratory outburst after the death of Albus Dumbledore in 1997.

(Bewitched Snowballs)

Description: Presumably causes snowballs to pelt themselves at the target.
Seen/Mentioned: Was used by Fred and George Weasley to attack the back of Quirinus Quirrell's head, unwittingly striking Tom Riddle in the face.

(Blasting Charm)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: The Blasting Charm is a spell which presumably creates an explosion. It may be a safer, less destructive version of the Blasting Curse.
Seen/Mentioned: Alberta Toothill used a Blasting Charm to defeat Samson Wiblin in the All-England Wizarding Duelling Competition of 1430.

(Bluebell Flames)

Bluebell flames
Description: Creates a quantity of blue flame which can be directed to a specific place such as into a glass jar.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione cast a bluebell flame that could be carried around in a jam jar, sent out a short distance, then retrieved into the jar.
Notes: Bluebell flames are waterproof and only heat/burn the intended target.
Bombarda! (HP3 screenshot)

Hermione casting this spell to free Sirius Black.


Pronunciation: bom-bar-dah
Description: Causes a small explosion.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione used this spell to free Sirius Black from his cage in the film version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. A stronger version of this spell, Bombarda Maxima, is performed by Dolores Umbridge to force her way into the Room of Requirement in the film version of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.
Notes: Both the regular and Maxima versions of this spell only appear in the films.
Bombarda-Maxima (HP5 screenshot)

Umbridge using this spell to blast off the Room of Requirement.‎

Bombarda Maxima

Pronunciation: bom-bar-dah max-im-ah
Description: Creates a big explosion that can take down entire walls
Seen/Mentioned: Dolores Umbridge used this spell in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) to force her way into the Room of Requirement

Brackium Emendo

Pronunciation: br-ah-kee-um e-men-do
Description: If used correctly, Gilderoy Lockhart claims it will heal a broken bone.
Seen/Mentioned: Used unsuccessfully by Gilderoy Lockhart on Harry Potter in the film version of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (instead of healing the bone it vanished all the bones in Harry's arm, leaving it not unlike rubber).
Etymology: From the Latin “bracchium”, meaning “forearm”, and “emendo”, meaning “I improve”.

(Bubble-Head Charm)

Cedric Diggory using Bubble-Head Charm for the Tri-wizard Tournament 2nd Task (Concept Artwork)
Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Puts a large bubble of air around the head of the user. Used as a magical equivalent of a breathing set.
Seen/Mentioned: Cedric Diggory and Fleur Delacour used this underwater in the second task of the Triwizard Tournament in 1995. It was also used by many Hogwarts students when walking through the hallways in 1996, because of the bad smells caused by the various pranks played on Dolores Umbridge. In the books, the bubble surrounds the user's entire head, while in the films it's limited to their mouth and nose.

(Bubble-producing spell)

Description: Creates a stream of non-bursting bubbles. The colour of the bubbles can vary and can be controlled by the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: Professor Flitwick used the spell to decorate the twelve Christmas trees at Hogwarts in Christmas of 1991. The bubbles in this instance were golden.
Notes: This spell is similar to Ebublio and the Bubble-Head Charm.


Calvorio - Lego

The Hair-Loss Jinx in Lego Harry Potter

Calvorio (Hair Loss Curse)

Description: Calvorio is a spell that is cast on a victim to make him/her bald. This spell is also useful in vanishing hats. When cast, there is a possibility that the spell will backfire and will affect the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: In Philosopher's Stone, Harry visits the "Curses and Counter-Curses" shop in Diagon Alley, on the sign it mentioned 3 curses; Hair loss, Jelly-Legs and Tongue-Tying.
Notes: This spell can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.




Description: Causes the target to uncontrollably burst into song.
Seen/Mentioned: LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7.

Carpe Retractum


Ron using Carpe Retractum in the Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Game.

Pronunciation: car-pay ruh-track-tum
Description: Produces a magical rope attached to the caster's wand that pulls objects towards the spell caster.
Seen/Mentioned: PoA and GoF Games, used by Bellatrix Lestrange (unspoken) on Scabior at Malfoy Manor in the Deathly Hallows Part I film.
Etymology: From the Latin "carpe", meaning to seize, and "retracto", meaning "I draw back".

(Cascading Jinx)

Description: An offensive spell used to defeat multiple enemies.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)

(Caterwauling Charm)

Description: Anyone entering the perimeter of a Caterwauling Charm sets off a high-pitched shriek.
Seen/Mentioned: Cast by Death Eaters over Hogsmeade to protect against intruders in 1998.
Notes: Could be another form of the Intruder Charm.
Etymology: Caterwaul means to wail like a cat.

(Cauldron to Sieve)

Description: Transfigures cauldrons into sieves.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter Trading Card Game

Cave Inimicum

Pronunciation::Kah-way ih-nih-mih-kum
Description: Warns of any approaching enemies (possible).
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger in 1998 to protect the tent she shared with Ron Weasley and Harry Potter.
Etymology: Cave Inimicum is a Latin phrase which translates to "beware of the enemy".

(Cheering Charm)

Pronunciation:: Unknown
Description: Causes the person upon whom the spell was cast to become happy and contented, though heavy-handedness with the spell may cause the person to break into an uncontrollable laughing fit.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in a Charms class in 1994. Cheering Charms were part of the written Charms O.W.L. exam.
Notes: Invented by Felix Summerbee.

Cistem Aperio


Spell used by Tom Riddle (Cistem Aperio).

Pronunciation: SIS-tem uh-PE-ree-o
Description: It opens a chest.
Etymology: Aperio is Latin for open, uncover, to uncover, lay bare, reveal, or make clear. Cista is Latin for trunk, or chest. If so, however, Cistem is likely a form of bastard Latin. Furthermore, if cista is its root, then it would be pronounced with a hard c (ca)
Seen/Mentioned: It was used by Tom Riddle to open the chest where Aragog was hidden.
Note: This spell was only used in the movie adaption of COS.


Pronunciation: cul-loh-POR-tus
Description: This spell will magically lock a door, preventing it from being opened by Muggle means.
Seen/Mentioned: First in 1996 by Hermione in the Department of Mysteries against some Death Eaters. Also used in Pottermore.
Etymology: Perhaps a portmanteau of the Latin words colligere ("gather" or "collect") and porta ("gate"). The Greek root kolla also means "glue" and becomes collo- in many English words. Notably, the spell causes a door to seal itself "with an odd squelching noise". It may also be derived from portcullis, which was used in medieval times as a barricade or last line of defence.
Notes: The Death Eaters did succeed in opening a door locked with Colloportus using Alohomora.


Description: This spell is used to glue one's shoes to the ground with some sort of sticky ectoplasm.
Seen/Mentioned: This spells is seen in the Harry Potter Trading Card Game, as well as on J. K. Rowling's Pottermore website.
Etymology: The suffix "shoo" derives from the English noun "shoe". The prefix "Collo" derives from the Greek verb: "κολάω,κολώ" (which means "to glue").


Pronunciation: mull-tee-COR-fors
Description: Changes an object's colour.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Harry's O.W.L. examinations in 1996. It may also be the same charm as when Harry accidentally changed the colour of his eyebrow, before he asked Luna to Slughorn's Christmas party. (Unlikely, as that was performed as a Transfiguration exercise, which is rather unrelated to Charms.) Could have possibly been used when Harry accidentally changed the colour of his teachers hair, in his Primary School.


Pronunciation: co-loh-VA-riah
Description: Colovaria is a charm used to change one's hair colour and style.
Seen/Mentioned: It can be bought in Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.
Etymology: The incantation probably derives from the words "colour" and "vary", meaning that the spell alters, varies the colour of an object.
Notes: It is possible that this is the incantation of the Colour Change Charm.

Confringo (Blasting Curse)


Hermione casting the Confringo curse on Nagini before disapparating.

Pronunciation: con-FRIN-goh (hard "g") or con-FRIN-joh
Description: Causes anything that the spell comes into contact with to explode into flames.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry to destroy the side-car of the flying motorbike during the battle against the Death Eaters in 1997. Later, Hermione used it in an attempt to kill Nagini and facilitate an escape from Bathilda Bagshot's house in Godric's Hollow.
Etymology: Confringo is Latin for "I break".
Notes: This spell seems to use heat as the source for the explosion. Harry is able to feel the 'heat' of the spell as it passes him when Hermione uses it against Nagini. Noting this, and due to the description of how the side-car exploded, it seems that the Blasting Curse is essentially a magical bomb, while the similar curse Expulso merely blows objects apart without using heat.

Confundo (Confundus Charm)

Tumblr l81svp7nGj1qc5fnro1 500

Hermione charming McLaggen.

Pronunciation: con-FUN-doh
Description: Causes the victim to become confused and befuddled.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in 1994, when Severus Snape suggested that Harry and Hermione had been Confunded so that they would believe Sirius Black's claim to innocence. Also used in 1996 by Hermione to prevent Cormac McLaggen from making Gryffindor Keeper over Ron. The Confundus Charm was used multiple times in 1997 including: Severus Snape on Ministry of Magic Official John Dawlish, Harry Potter while under his Invisibility cloak on two Gringotts wizard guards who were wielding Probity Probes, and again by Severus Snape on Mundungus Fletcher under orders from Albus Dumbledore. While under the influence of the Confundus Charm, Mundungus then "suggested" to the Order of the Phoenix that they use seven Harry's to confuse Voldemort while they move him from Privet Drive to The Burrow. The Confundus Charm was also used in 2017 by Ron Weasley as the means used to pass his Muggle driving exam.
Etymology: The word "confundus" appears to be derived from the Latin confundere, meaning "to confuse; to perplex", whereas confundo means "I confuse". Similarly, it may also derive from the English word "confound".

(Conjunctivitus Curse)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: A curse that causes great pain to the victim's eyes.
Seen/Mentioned: It was suggested by Sirius Black in the letter that he sent Harry and used by Viktor Krum in the first task of the Triwizard Tournament in 1994. It was also used by Madame Maxime in 1995 on giants.
Etymology: Presumably, the common name is derived from the Conjunctivitis disease, more commonly known as "pink eye" or "caterpillar eye" due to its scabby inflammation. However, the incantation may come from the Latin words specto meaning "to watch" and the Latin word for "disrupt", in which case, the incantation would mean "disrupt the sight'.

(Cornflake skin spell)

Description: causes the target's skin to look as though it was coated in cornflakes.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1996, C. Warrington went to the hospital wing for treatment after he was hit with it, presumably in retaliation for the Inquisitorial Squad's recent behaviour.

(Cracker Jinx)

Description: Conjures exploding Wizard Crackers.
Notes: This jinx can be used in duelling to cause harm on the opponent, but the force of the explosion may also affect the caster.

(Cribbing Spell)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: A spell that assists the caster in cheating on written papers, tests and exams.
Seen/Mentioned: In the video game version of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone a Slytherin student asks about cribbing spells.

Crucio (Cruciatus Curse)

Main article: Unforgivable Curses

Harry Potter being tortured by the Cruciatus curse

Pronunciation: KROO-shea-oh, KROO-see-oh
Description: Inflicts intense pain on the recipient of the curse. The pain is described as hot knives being driven into you. This curse is affected by the caster's emotions. In an incurable rage, Harry Potter attempts this curse on Bellatrix Lestrange after she murders his Godfather. The curse fails to hurt Bellatrix for long and she mocks him, stating that the caster needed to enjoy the pain inflicted with the Cruciatus Curse. The only time Harry has successfully executed this curse is in the Ravenclaw common room on Amycus Carrow, who had forced Minerva McGonagall to lead him in after he heard that Harry was there. He planned to pass off the assault of his sister, Alecto who Harry had stunned upon entrance, onto the students for an excuse to punish them. When McGonagall objected, he spat in her face. Enraged by his treatment of a teacher he greatly admired, and of the students, Harry burst from the concealment of the Invisibility cloak and cast a true Cruciatus Curse, knocking the Death Eater out. This spell is an Unforgivable Curse, so the punishment is capital punishment or life sentence in Azkaban
Seen/Mentioned:Barty Crouch Jr. who was impersonating the ex-Auror Alastor Moody, used it on a spider during a "class demonstration" in a Defence Against the Dark Arts class. Barty Crouch Jr, Bellatrix Lestrange, Rodolphus Lestrange, and Rabastan Lestrange were sent to the wizard prison, Azkaban, for using the curse to torture Alice and Frank Longbottom, parents of Neville Longbottom, to insanity.
Etymology: Latin crucio, "I torture" (perfect passive participle cruciatus).

(Curse of the Bogies)

Incantation: Mucus-ad-Nauseam
Description: Gives the recipient a massive head cold, as well as a runny nose.
Seen/mentioned: in Harry's first year, when Neville and Hermione follow Harry and Ron to the trophy room at night, Ron says, "If either of you gets us caught, I won't rest until I've learned that Curse of the Bogies Quirrell was talking about and used it on you." Also seen in a game of some sort (see page), and on Pottermore.


Defodio (Gouging Spell)

Pronunciation: deh-FOH-dee-oh
Description: This spell causes deep gouges to appear in the object targeted by the spell.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione, Harry, and Ron in 1998 to help tunnel out of the Gringotts Tunnels while on the dragon as well as in their escape from Luna Lovegood's home, also in 1998. Also used by Harry in 1998 to carve the words "Here Lies Dobby, A Free Elf." in Dobby the house elf's grave stone, after the brave elf was impaled with a silver knife thrown by a furious Bellatrix Lestrange just as he disapparated.
Etymology: Defodio is Latin for "I dig".


Pronunciation: deh-LEE-tree-us
Description: An erasure spell. It erases images and magical "after-effects".
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1994 when Amos Diggory got rid of the echo of the Dark Mark from Harry's wand.
Etymology: Latin delere, meaning "to destroy". A different tense spawns the English word "delete".




Pronunciation: den-sah-OO-jee-oh or den-sah-ow-gee-oh
Description: This hex makes the victim's teeth grow rapidly.
Seen/Mentioned: Introduced in 1994 when Draco Malfoy's spell rebounded on Hermione outside of the Potions classroom. Appears in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7.
Etymology: From Latin dens, "tooth", and augeo, "I increase" or "I enlarge".

Depulso (Banishing Charm)

HPatPoA Lv2 Fig1
Description: The Banishing Charm. Used to send the target to a certain location.
Seen/Mentioned: Learned in the fourth year at Hogwarts.
Etymology: From the Latin “depulsio”, meaning “driving away”. Also is similar to repulse meaning "drive away with force". It could also be seen to be derived from the English word pulse (as in a pulse of energy.) and the prefix "de" which would make it mean "a negative pulse of energy."


Pronunciation: deh-SEN-doh
Description: Causes any targeted object to move downwards.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1997, it was used by Ron to magically cause the stairs in his room, which lead to the attic, to descend, as well as by Crabbe in the Room of Requirement to lower the wall behind which Ron was hiding.
Etymology: Descendo is Latin for "I descend".


Pronunciation: DEE-prih-moh.
Description: This spell places immense downward pressure upon its target, which may result in the violent fracturing of said target.
Seen/Mentioned: Introduced in 1998 when Hermione blasted a hole through the living room floor in Xenophilius Lovegood's house.
Etymology: Derived from the Latin deprimo, "I press down".

Diffindo (Severing Charm)


Harry using this charm to crack the ice concealing Gryffindor's sword.

Pronunciation: dih-FIN-doh
Description: Tears the target or a specific area on the target.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1994 when Harry urgently wanted to talk to Cedric Diggory he cast this spell to rip his bag, delaying him for class. Ron also used this spell to trim the lace off his dress robes before the Yule Ball. It was also used in 1996 by Harry to change the covers of his second hand and brand new copies of Advanced Potion Making.
Etymology: Latin diffindere, "to divide" or "to split".


Diminuendo 1
Pronunciation: dim-in-YEW-en-DOUGH
Description: Forces objects to shrink
Seen/Mentioned: Performed by Nigel in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.
Etymology: From the Latin word "diminuere", meaning to diminish. Possibly from the musical term diminuendo, meaning a gradual decrease of loudness.



Harry using Dissendium to open Salazar Slytherin's Locket.

Pronunciation: dis-EN-dee-um
Description: Causes the statue of the humpbacked witch (Gunhilda Of Gorsemore) hiding the secret passage to Honeydukes to open up.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1993.
Etymology: Quite simply, a phonetic spelling of the English word "descend" with a common Latin noun ending attached (-ium). The name also vaguely suggests "dissident", meaning to be against the laws. It could also come from the Latin word Dissocio, which means to part or to separate (in its verb form). The word en can mean both here and look Dium, could refer to the sun and normally translates as day or, more appropriately, today but can also be used as the command now. Together Dissendium could mean Separate here, now.
Notes: This may not be a spell in the strict sense, but a magical password like "Mimbulus Mimbletonia" (once a password for the Fat Lady) and "Acid Pops" (one of the passwords for Dumbledore's office gargoyle in 1996). However, it is mentioned that Harry has to tap the statue of the crone while saying the spell in order for it to open up. Also, the name of the spell is similar to the way other spells are named, suggesting that it may be a spell in its own right. A more logical explanation would be that it opens secret passages in general, although it is only used on the particular statue in the series, so this is not confirmed, it is just an idea.

Disillusionment Charm

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Hides objects and humans
Seen/Mentioned: Seen/Mentioned: Alastor Moody used the charm on Harry in 1995. Also mentioned in the Ministry of Magic leaflet provided to all magical people as a precaution against Voldemort's reign of terror. Xenophilius Lovegood mentions, in 1998, that invisibility cloaks are sometimes created by casting a disillusionment charm on a regular cloak, but that such charms will eventually fade and become visible. Is also used by Malfoy, Crabbe and Goyle in the Battle of Hogwarts.


Description: Turns statues of dragons into real dragons.
Draconifors 2
Etymology: From the Latin draco, meaning “dragon”, and fors, meaning “luck”. Questionable incantation.
Seen/Mentioned: PoA Game.




Description: Transfigures target creature into a duck. A more reasonable incantation would be Zointrao Versavertamum (from zoo (animal-related), intra (within) and oo (egg), plus Versaverte, the transfiguration spell.
Etymology: From the English "duck", and the Latin "fors", meaning "luck". Questionable incantation.
Seen/Mentioned: GoF game. LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7.


Pronunciation: DOO-roh
Description: This spell is said to turn its target to stone.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in 1998 while escaping from Death Eaters in the Battle of Hogwarts.
Etymology: Latin duro, "I make hard", "I stiffen".


Ear to kumquat changing charm

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Changes the victim's ears to kumquats
Seen/Mentioned: In 1995, Luna Lovegood was reading The Quibbler upside down in order to reveal the secret charm, written in Ancient Runes.

Ear-shrivelling Curse

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Causes the target's ears to shrivel up.
Seen/Mentioned: Sometime between 1989 and 1994 Bill Weasley's pen-friend sent him a hat with this curse on it.


Description: When cast, it makes the victim inflate and then explode into hundreds of bubbles.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (video game)
Notes: It can only be cast if an ally is using Aqua Eructo on the target whilst the spell is being cast.

Engorgio (Engorgement Charm)


Barty Crouch Jr. as Mad Eye Moody Casting Engorgio

Pronunciation: en-GOR-jee-oh
Description: Causes objects to swell in size.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in 1994 when Barty Crouch Jr., impersonating Professor Moody, cast it on a spider to enhance a demonstration of the effects of the Cruciatus Curse. Rubeus Hagrid is also suspected of having performed the charm on his pumpkins once, and Ron Weasley suggested it might be the cause of Hagrid's abnormal size before learning that he is half-giant. Also used on a spider by Harry in 1998, partly to test his stolen wand, and partly to annoy Ron.
Etymology: The English word engorged means "distended" or "swollen". Almost certainly the same as the "Growth Charm" which was briefly mentioned in one of the books.
Notes: There is a difference between engorging something and enlarging it. Engorgement refers to swelling up, while simple enlargement refers to a scaled (proportionate) increase in size. However, take note that the pronunciation shares a root with engorgement.

Engorgio Skullus

Pronunciation: IN-GORE-jee-OH SKU-las
Description: Engorgio Skullus is a Hex. This spell is used to swell the victim's skull. This may be a variation of the Engorgement Charm, as the first word of its incantation is the same.
Seen/Mentioned: It appears in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.
'Etymology: The word engorge means "to fill to excess". The word skullus is probably an adaptation of the English noun skull.
Notes: Its counter curse is Redactum Skullus.


Pronunciation: en-TOE-morf-is
Description: Entomorphis is a hex which turns the target into an insectoid person for a short time.
Seen/Mentioned: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.
Etymology: "Entomorphis" most possibly derives from the Greek word "έντομο" (entomo) which means "insect" and the Greek word "μορφή" (morphi) which means "form."
Notes: This may have been the spell that Harry Potter contemplating using on Dudley Dursley in 1995 "by striking him dumb, grow feelers, and have him scuttle home" when the latter was mocking Harry's nightmares about Cedric Diggory's death.

(Entrail-Expelling Curse)

Description: Presumably causes the entrails (i.e. intestines) to be ejected from the body.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in Order of the Phoenix when Harry visits St Mungo's following Arthur Weasley's attack by Nagini while guarding the Department of Mysteries.
Suggested Etymology: English word expel meaning "to drive or force out or away".[4]
Notes: The spell is listed under a portrait of Urquhart Rackharrow, 1612-1697, who is known for being the spell's inventor.



Luna Lovegood healing Harry's broken nose with Episkey

Pronunciation: eh-PIS-key
Description: Used to heal relatively minor injuries.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1996, Nymphadora Tonks used this spell to fix Harry's broken nose after Draco Malfoy broke it on the Hogwarts Express(used by Luna Lovegood in the film adaptation). Harry Potter used it on Demelza Robins' swollen lip after Ron Weasley accidentally punched her during Quidditch practice.
Etymology: The word comes from the Greek "episkeui" ("επισκευή"), which means "repair".
Notes: J. K. Rowling writes in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince that Harry's knowledge tells him this spell could belong to a family (or variety) of Healing Spells, in the same way a species of plants belongs to a larger genus.


Pronunciation: ee-POX-i-mise
Description: Affixes an object to another like glue.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter Trading Card Game
Etymology: Epoximise comes from the English word epoxy, which is a type of adhesive.
Notes: This spell may be the Permanent Sticking Charm or a variation.


Pronunciation: ee-RECK-toh, eh-RECK-toh
Description: Used to erect a tent or other structure.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione and Harry to construct shelter for themselves and Ron in 1997.
Etymology: Erectum is past participle of Erigere, Latin for "to erect".

Evanesco (Vanishing Spell)

Pronunciation: ev-an-ES-koh
Description: Makes something vanish.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in 1995 by Severus Snape to make Harry's potions disappear from his cauldron. In addition, when Fred and George were showing off their puking pastilles, Lee Jordan cleared the bucket of vomit with the Evanesco spell.
Etymology: Comes from "evanescence", something that is fleeting or disappears, and the Latin evanesco, "disappear".
Notes: In 1998, when asked by the door knocker to Ravenclaw Tower "Where to vanished objects go?", Professor McGonagall replied "Into non-being, which is to say, everything." This is, so far, the best description available for what happens to Vanished objects.

Everte Statum


This spell was used by Draco at the Duelling Club (Everte Statum)

Pronunciation: ee-VER-tay STAH-tum.
Description: Has the same properties of the Hurling Hex. The use of the Latin word 'Everte' backs this up as it basically means 'to throw out'. Also, in its use by Draco Malfoy in the Duelling Club in 1992, the spell throws Harry backwards.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets at the Duelling Club. In the book the spell is not described but to Harry it feels like being hit with a frying pan.
Etymology: The Latin word 'Everte' means 'to throw out', and “statua”, meaning “image”, or "statue".

Expecto Patronum (Patronus Charm)


Luna Lovegood casting her Patronus, which is a hare

Ginny Patronus

Ginny Weasley's patronus

Pronunciation: ecks-PEK-toh pah-TRO-num
Description: The Patronus Charm is a defensive spell used to conjure an incarnation of the Witch's or Wizard's innermost positive emotions to act as a protector against dementors and lethifolds. It can also be used to send messages.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1993, when Remus Lupin made the Dementor on the train disappear, though seen without the incantation noticed. Lupin later taught Harry Potter to use the charm as a defence against Dementors. According to Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them it is the only charm that has any effects on the Lethifold, or Living Shroud.
Etymology: Patronus means "protector" or "guardian" in Latin, reflecting the role the Patronus Charm plays. In archaic Latin, it meant "father", which is interesting, considering that Harry Potter's Patronus is the same as his father's Patronus and Animagus form. The Latin word exspecto or expecto means "I watch for" or "I await", thus the charm's incantation roughly translates into "I await a protector".[5]
Notes: All Patronuses take the form something important to the caster, usually some animal special to them. For instance, Harry Potter's Patronus is a stag; Harry's father, James, was an Animagus whose animal form was a stag. The form of one's Patronus can change when the caster has undergone a period of heightened emotion, such as severe stress or love, such as when Nymphadora Tonks' Patronus changed to a werewolf.

Expelliarmus (Disarming Charm)

Pronunciation: ex-pel-ee-AR-mus
Description: This spell is used to disarm another wizard, typically by causing the victim's wand to fly out of reach. It can also throw the target backwards when enough power is put into it. As demonstrated in 1994, simultaneous use of this spell by multiple witches or wizards on a single person can throw the wizard back with much greater force.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1992, when Severus Snape disarmed Gilderoy Lockhart at the Duelling Club. The most notable uses of
File:Severus Snape-EXPELLIARMUS (spanish)
it are when Draco Malfoy used it to disarm Albus Dumbledore, and Harry used it in the final battle against Voldemort wielding the Elder Wand. It was seen by the Death Eaters as Harry's signature spell.
Etymology: Possibly a combined form of the Latin expello, "expel", and arma, "weapons" or "tools"; thus, "expel the weapon". Expellamus means "let us expel".
Note: Called Harry's "signature move" in 1997, and also used in the second Doctor Who episode of the third series, The Shakespeare Code starring David Tennant and Freema Agyeman.


Description: This spell has only been cast once, and that was by Cho Chang in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, as an accidental curse used against her friend Marietta. It is possible that this curse can only be cast when the caster is distracted. It manifests as a jet of red light, and cause the targets clothing to spontaneously combust.
Seen/Mentioned:Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix



Harry using this curse to destroy Salazar Slytherin's Locket.

Pronunciation: ecks-PUL-soh
Description: A very powerful curse which causes a large explosion. Similar to the Blasting Curse, which also causes its target to explode, though the Blasting Curse seems to use heat (like a bomb) while Expulso seems to cause an explosion using pressure as opposed to heat.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by the Death Eater Antonin Dolohov in an attempt to capture Harry in 1997; this may have been the spell that caused a segment of wall to fall and kill Fred Weasley.
Etymology: Expulsum is past participle of Expellere, Latin for "to expel".

(Extinguishing spell)

Description: A spell which is used to put out fires.
Seen/Mentioned: Charles Weasley told Rubeus Hagrid that he and his fellow dragon keepers were prepared to cast extinguishing spells should something go wrong during the first task of the Triwizard Tournament.[6]


(Featherweight Charm)

Description: Makes something lightweight.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry contemplated using this in 1993 to lighten his trunk so that he could carry it by broom to Gringotts.
Notes- this spell could have been cast in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows by Hermione on her beaded bag because she can carry it easily.

Fera Verto


Fera Verto was used by McGonagall in her Transfiguration class.

Pronunciation: Fair-uh-VAIR-toh
Description: Turn animals to water goblets.
Seen/Mentioned: Used only once in the series, by Minerva McGonagall in the film version of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets at her Transfiguration class.
Etymology: From Latin fera meaning "beast" or "animal", and verto, meaning “I turn”.


Pronunciation: feh-ROO-lah
Description: Creates a bandage and a splint.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Remus Lupin in 1994 to bind Ron's broken leg.
Etymology: Latin ferula, meaning "walking-stick" or "splint".

(Fianto Duri)


Professor Slughorn using this spell to protect Hogwarts.

Pronunciation: Fi-AN-to DU-ri
Description: It is a protective charm that was used along with Protego Maxima and Repello Inimigotum during the Battle of Hogwarts. The spells effect is to turn magical shields into physical shields so as to prevent the enemy passing through it.
Seen/Mentioned: In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2, this spell was used by professors Filius Flitwick and Horace Slughorn along with Order of the Phoenix member Molly Weasley to protect Hogwarts Castle.
Etymomlogy: Latin "fiant", meaning "become" and "duri", nominative masculine plural of dūrus", meaning "hard" or "unyielding"; altogether the incantation reads "become hard".

(Fidelius Charm)

Fidelius Charm

Rubeus Hagrid and Harry entering the Fidelius Charm outside The Burrow.

Pronunciation: fih-DAY-lee-us
Description: This complex charm enables secret information to be hidden within the soul of the recipient, known as a Secret-Keeper. The information is then irretrievable until and unless the Secret-Keeper chooses to reveal it; not even those who have the Secret revealed to them can reveal it to others. If a Secret-Keeper dies, each individual who knew of the secret in turn becomes Secret-Keeper.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1993, it was explained that when Harry was an infant, he and his parents, James and Lily Potter, were hidden from Lord Voldemort by this charm. Later, in 1995, the charm was used to hide the location of the headquarters for the Order of the Phoenix. It was also used in 1998, in which it was used to protect the location of Shell Cottage.
Etymology: Latin fidelis, which means "faithful" or "loyal".
Notes: J. K. Rowling previously stated that when a Secret-Keeper dies, the Secret they held can never be revealed to anyone else; the people who were told before the Secret-Keeper's death will still know the secret, but after the death of the Secret-Keeper no one new can be brought into the circle of knowledge (meaning that eventually all knowledge of the secret will be lost and it will become undiscoverable.[7] However, in 1997, it is clearly explained that upon the Keeper's death (specifically, Dumbledore as Keeper of 12 Grimmauld Place), all those who had been told the secret became Secret-Keepers in turn, and could pass the secret on to others. Hermione accidentally "revealed" Grimmauld Place to the Death Eater Yaxley by allowing him to Apparate with her to its front doorstep. Although Yaxley would not be able to reveal the secret to other Death Eaters, he could have brought them inside by the same process. What those other Death Eaters would see and experience upon entering the house in this fashion is not fully explained. It is also not known what would happen if a secret was not passed on to anybody before the death of the Secret Keeper, although the secret information would remain as it was the moment of the Secret Keeper's death.
Notes (2): The Fidelius Charm seems to have no effect with regard to animals, as Hedwig found Ron and Hermione in the headquarters of the Order of the Phoenix in 1995 (unless she was told by Dumbledore somehow). Another oddity is that the Potter's house in Godric's Hollow was apparently visible to all non-Muggles, even though the Secret should have only been known to James, Lily, Harry, Sirius, Peter, Bathilda Bagshot and Voldemort; it apparently ceased to operate upon the Potters' death.
Notes (3): In 1981 Hagrid managed to get Harry before all the Muggles could take a look at the scene. This would mean that after either killing the Potters or the destruction of their House by the Avada Kedavra curse, the spell ceased to function. Later, it would seem that the house was made to be anti-Muggle by wizards in order to pay tribute to the Potters.
Notes (4): In 1997, even though the name of Voldemort had been cursed so act as a sort of beacon as to who spoke the name and as a jinx to disarm all enchantments that it was unable to deactivate the Fidelius charms defences, however it still may have been a beacon as Death Eaters were staking out the location after Voldemort's name had been spoken within. However it seems as though the Death Eaters were there simply in case Harry showed up as they only stationed 2 Death Eaters in a rotation as though they were staking it out and did not know for sure that Harry, Hermione, and Ron were inside.
Notes (5): Those who have been informed of the secret by the Secret-Keeper are unable to tell the secret to those who are unaware of it. This is proven when Snape told Bellatrix that he couldn't speak the name of 12 Grimmauld Place. Those who do know the secret can apparently discuss it with impunity, though, as Harry and his friends spoke of Grimmauld Place in idle conversation.



The Room of Requirement being destroyed by fiendfyre

Pronunciation: Feend-fire
Description: Fiendfyre is seemingly unstoppable cursed fire whose flames take the shape of fantastic creatures that appear to stalk those caught in its path. It can also destroy Horcruxes.
Seen/Mentioned: Possibly in the Half Blood Prince(film) when by Bellatrix and Fenirir Greyback when they attacked the Burrow at Christmas and in the order of the phoenix (film) when Albus and Voldemort duel in the ministry. Another usage was in the Deathly hallows in the Battle of Hogwarts when Crabbe, Goyle, and Draco Malfoy cornered Harry Potter in the Room of Requirement when he was searching for Rowena Ravenclaw's lost diadem. Crabbe cast Fiendfyre, which become flaming beasts that pursued Harry, Ron, and Hermione and gleefully devoured every object within the Room, including Crabbe and the Horcrux within the diadem.
Etymology: A "fiend" is a cruel or wicked person, or a demon; "fyre" is a reference to fire.
Notes: The caster must be able to control Fiendfyre, or it can spread indefinitely. The fire cannot be extinguished by water or fire-stopping charms, and the spell's flames may have some independent consciousness. Hermione Granger notes that she was aware that Fiendfyre was extremely destructive and that it can potentially destroy a Horcrux. However, she never considered using it because it was too dangerous. It is likely that Fiendfyre is too difficult or impossible for most to control.

Fiery offensive spell

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Mcgonagall duelling Snape with this spell.

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Possibly a form of Incendio. It presumably scorches the opponent, and the flames seem to have a shape.
Seen/Mentioned: Minerva McGonagall used this spell to duel Snape in the Great Hall in 1998.

Finite (Incantatem)

Pronunciation: fi-NEE-tay (in-can-TAH-tem)
Description: Negates spells or the effects of spells.
Seen/Mentioned: Severus Snape used it in 1992 to restore order in the Duelling Club when Harry and Draco were duelling. Remus Lupin used the short form "Finite" in 1995. In 1996, Luna used this spell to deactivate the Full body-bind curse on Harry. Harry used Finite to counter Crabbe's Descendo attack on Ron in 1998.
Etymology: Latin finire, "to finish": "finite" is the plural imperative form, so it translates to the command, "[all of you] end". Incantatem is apparently intended to recall "incantation"; the Latin verb form incantatum would mean "someone or something enspelled".

(Finger-removing jinx)

Description: presumably removes a person's fingers.
Seen/Mentioned: It was mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages when Goodwin Kneen came home late from playing a Quidditch game and had to duck a few nasty jinxes from his wife, Gunhilda, but was unable to duck this particular one.


Dumbledore fighting the Inferi.gif

Dumbledore conjures a Firestorm to ward off the Inferi.

Description: A spell that conjures a ring of fire. The caster is able to control the movement and direction of the flames with enough precision to strike specific targets. The spell Partis Temporus can create a gap in the flames to allow safe passage through.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1997, Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter entered a seaside cave in an attempt to locate one of Lord Voldemort's Horcruxes. When the Inferi guarding the Horcrux attacked, Dumbledore conjured a firestorm to drive them back, saving Harry's life in the process.

(Flagrante Curse)

Description: Causes any object affected to burn human skin when touched.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in the Lestranges' vault in 1998, as a criminal deterrent.
Etymology: From the Latin flagro, meaning "to blaze", "to flame" or "to burn". Also, in flagrante delicto means "in the very act of crime".


Flagrate COS 1
Pronunciation: fluh-GRAYT, FLAH-grayt, fluh-GRAH-tay
Description: With this spell, the caster's wand can leave fiery marks.
Seen/Mentioned: Two appearances, by Hermione. She used the spell to identify doors of the Department of Mysteries which members of Dumbledore's Army had already opened, by marking an "X" on them. Also used by Tom Riddle in the Chamber of Secrets to draw his name in the air with Harry's Wand.
Etymology: The incantation comes from the Latin noun flagrate, meaning "a burn".

(Flame-Freezing Charm)

Description: Causes fire to become harmless to those caught in it, creating only a gentle, tickling sensation instead of burns.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in 1993 as used by witches and wizards during medieval burnings. Apparently, one witch (Wendelin the Weird) was so fond of the tickling sensation, she allowed herself to be caught and subsequently burned no fewer than 47 times.
Notes: This may have been the spell used by Albus Dumbledore in 1938 to seemingly set fire to Tom Riddle's old wardrobe whilst causing no physical damage. It may also be the protection in the Floo network, as well as how people communicate through fireplaces.


Pronunciation: FLIP-pen-do
Description: The Knock-Back Jinx, used to push the target. If used repeatedly, it may bring down weaker enemies.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in the video game adaptations of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. One of the starter spells of the game. In LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4, it can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley.
Notes: Not used in the books or in the films.

(Flying Spell)

Description: Apparently the spell cast on broomsticks to make them fly.
Seen/Mentioned: Draco Malfoy mentioned this spell when tauntingly asking Ron Weasley why would anyone cast a Flying Charm on Ron's broomstick, which he deems a "mouldy old log", in 1995 during Ron's first Quidditch practice.

(Fountain of wine)

Description: Presumably produces a stream of wine from the wand tip.
Seen/Mentioned: Garrick Ollivander used this spell to test one of the Champions' wands during the Triwizard Tournament of the 1994-1995 school year.


Pronunciation: not mentioned
Description: Used to produce a cloud of dark gray smoke.
Seen/Mentioned: In the Trading Card Game. Also in the video game adaptation of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban


Pronunciation: fer-NUN-kyoo-lus
Description: Causes the target to become covered in painful boils.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry Potter in 1995 on Draco Malfoy, but was deflected onto Goyle instead.
Etymology: Latin furnus, meaning "oven", or Latin furunculus, meaning "petty thief", or English furuncle, an alternative word to "boil".

(Fur spell)

Description: This spell causes fur to grow on someone.
Seen/Mentioned: Fred and George Weasley used this spell on themselves to grow fur (along with boils), in an attempt to cheer up their sister, Ginny Weasley during the time when the Basilisk was petrifying people.



Pronunciation: jeh-MIH-nee-oh, geh-MIH-nee-oh (hard "g")
Description: Creates a duplicate of any object cast upon.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in 1997 to copy Salazar Slytherin's locket in order to hide their tracks from Dolores Umbridge was also used on the locket when Sirius's brother Regulus Black stole the locket from Voldemort in the cave. Assumed that it was used on Gryffindor's sword by Snape.
Etymology: Gemini is Latin for "twins".

(Gemino Curse)


Harry sinking in the duplicated treasure created by this curse in the Lestrange Vault.

Description: Whenever an object affected by this curse is touched, it duplicates itself into many useless copies to hide the original.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in 1998 when Harry, Ron, Hermione, and Griphook the goblin broke into the Lestrange vault at Gringotts.
Etymology: Possible conflation of the Latin 'Gemini' and the English 'Domino', suggested by the spell's effect of duplicating items ad infinitum.


Pronunciation: GLAY-shuss, gla-SI-us
Description: A spell with great range, can freeze things to ice and can be melted by Incendio.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in the video games, used especially in the video game adaptation of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire.
Etymology: From obsolete French glacieux, from Latin glaciēs (“ice”).
Notes: Never used in the books or in the films.


Pronunciation: GLISS-ee-oh, gliss-SAY-oh
Description: Causes the steps on a stairway to flatten and form a ramp, slide, or chute.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione to escape from pursuing Death Eaters in 1998. It is possible that the spell on the stairs to the girl's dormitories, which activates when boys try to climb the stairs, is the same .
Etymology: Possibly derived from the French verb glisser, meaning "to slide".

(Green Sparks)

Description: Produces a quantity of green sparks from the wand (similar to Verdimillious).
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Pottermore.

(Gripping Charm)

Description: Used to help someone grip something with more effectiveness. This charm is placed upon Quaffles to help Chasers carry the Quaffle whilst simultaneously holding their brooms.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages.


(Hair-thickening Charm)

Description: Thickens one's hair.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1996, Severus Snape asserted that Alicia Spinnet used it on her eyebrows even though she was obviously hexed by someone on the Slytherin Quidditch team.

Harmonia Nectere Passus

Harmonia Nectere Passus

Draco Malfoy activating the Vanishing Cabinet.

Pronunciation: Harm-oh-nee-a Nek-te-reh Pass-us
Description: Causes the object/person in a vanishing cabinet to pass in its twin/other vanishing cabinet.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Draco Malfoy in the Room of Requirement, when testing the Vanishing Cabinet he was mending in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.
Etymology: Harmonia Nectere Passus derives from the Latin word "harmonia", meaning "harmony", the Latin word "nectere" which means "to tie, bind", and the Latin term "passus" meaning "step, pace", which came from "pati" meaning "suffer, allow, undergo". Effectively, the entire phrase comes out to mean "Allow(ing) to bind the harmony." Basically, binding the rift between the sister Vanishing Cabinets.


Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: A spell that makes yellow flowers sprout out of the victims head.
Seen/Mentioned: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.


Hp4 2 1 5a
Pronunciation: HER-bee-vee-kus
Description: Makes flowers and plants bloom in an instant, has some similar affects from Orchideous.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in the video game version of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire.
Notes: Not used in the books or the films

(Hermione Granger's jinx)

Description: Causes a traitor to break out in boils spelling "SNEAK" on his or her forehead.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione Granger designed and placed this jinx on the parchment signed by all members of Dumbledore's Army. When Marietta Edgecombe betrayed the D.A. to Dolores Umbridge, the jinx was triggered.
Notes: This jinx was invented by Hermione, and may have been inspired by Furnunculus.

Homenum Revelio

Homenum Revelio

Hermione using this charm in 12 Grimmauld Place.

Pronunciation: HOM-eh-num reh-VEH-lee-oh
Description: Reveals human presence in the vicinity of the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: Used multiple times by various people in 1997.
Etymology: Most likely from Latin homo, meaning human, and "reveal", though the classical Latin form would be hominem instead of homenum, which shows Portuguese influence ("man" is homem in Portuguese)—indeed, Rowling speaks the language.
Notes: It can be used non-verbally; Dumbledore does so to detect Harry underneath his Invisibility Cloak.[8]

(Homorphus Charm)

Description: Causes an Animagus or transfigured object to assume its normal shape.
Seen/Mentioned: According to Lockhart, he used it to force the Wagga Wagga Werewolf to take its human form. It was, however, used by Lupin and Sirius on the rat named Scabbers to reveal that he was Peter Pettigrew in Prisoner of Azkaban.
Suggested Etymology: Latin homo meaning "person" and Greek morphosis meaning "shaping"

(Horn-growing hex)

Description: makes the victim grow horns.
Seen/Mentioned: It was briefly mentioned in question 7 of the W.O.M.B.A.T. test on what should receive the lightest punishment by the Wizengamot "horns created on a culprits mother by a broken wand."

(Horton-Keitch Braking Charm)

Description: This spell was first used on the Comet 140 to prevent players from overshooting the goal posts and from flying off-sides.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages as the charm that gave the Comet 140 an advantage over the Cleansweep.

(Horcrux Curse)


4 of Voldemort's horcruxes

Description: This spell allows a part of a wizard's soul to pass into an object, thereby making the object a Horcrux. One has to commit murder and take advantage of the soul's "splitting apart" by this supreme act of evil in order to be able to perform this spell, and it is probably very complex. In 1943, Horace Slughorn described the spell to a young Tom Riddle as encasing a portion of the torn soul and placing it within an object. The spell itself is described in detail in a banned book known as "Secret of the Darkest Art", which Hermione Granger summoned from Albus Dumbledore's office near the end of their sixth year. According to the text, use of this spell to separate the soul will make the remaining portion of the soul very fragile, and can only be reversed by "remorse" of the wrongs the creator had made; however, the pain caused by attempting to reverse the creation of a Horcrux can destroy the individual.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Lord Voldemort while creating his Horcruxes.
Notes: When J.K.Rowling was asked about what the steps are to create a Horcrux Rowling declined to answer, saying that "some things are better left unsaid". However, in the Harry Potter Encyclopedia, it is explained, and the editor is said to have felt like vomiting after reading it.

(Hot-Air Charm)

Description: Causes wand to emit hot air.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger in 1995 to dry off her robes. Also used shortly after to melt snow. Also was used by Albus Dumbledore in 1997 to dry Harry's and his own robes. Quite possibly a form of Ventus.

(Hurling Hex)

Description: Causes brooms to vibrate violently in the air and try to buck their rider off.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1991, Professor Quirrell may have been casting a wordless and wandless version of this spell on Harry's broom during his Quidditch match. Professor Flitwick suggested that Harry's confiscated Firebolt may be jinxed with this spell.



Pronunciation: i-lej-i-bill-us
Description: Illegibilus is a spell that is used to render a text illegible.

Immobulus (Freezing Charm)


Hermione casting this charm on the pixies.

Pronunciation: eem-o-bue-les
Description: Renders target immobile.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione used it 1992 to freeze 2 Cornish Pixies. According to Horace Slughorn, a Freezing Charm will disable a Muggle Burglar Alarm. It strikes resemblances to the Flame-Freezing Charm, which negates the effects of fire.
Etymology: From the Latin “immobilis”, meaning immovable.
Notes: The Incantation was mentioned in the film adaptations of Chamber of Secrets.
Remus Lupin also used it on the womping willow in the third movie when they use the time turner.

Impedimenta (Impediment Jinx)


James Potter casting this spell on Severus Snape in his teenage years.

Pronunciation: im-ped-ih-MEN-tah
Description: This jinx is capable of tripping, freezing, binding, knocking back and generally impeding the target's progress towards the caster. The extent to which the spell's specific action can be controlled by the caster is unclear.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in 1995 when Harry was practising for the Third Task of the Triwizard Tournament. In 1996, Harry saw in a memory that James Potter used it on Severus Snape. Also used in 1997 by Harry against the Inferi and Snape. Stronger uses of this spell seem capable of blowing targets away.
Etymology: Latin impedimentum (plural impedimenta), "a hindrance" or "an impediment".

Imperio (Imperius Curse)


Viktor Krum under the effects of Barty Crouch Jr's Imperius Curse

Main article: Unforgivable Curses
Pronunciation: im-PEER-ee-oh
Description: One of the three "Unforgivable Curses". Places the subject in a dream-like state, in which he or she is utterly subject to the will of the caster. However, those who are strong willed may learn to resist it. The use of this curse on another human results in capital punishment or life sentence in Azkaban
Seen/Mentioned: Used on many occasions. First seen in 1994 when Barty Crouch Jr, impersonating ex-Auror Alastor Moody, used it on a spider and later on students during a "class demonstration" in a Defence Against the Dark Arts class. While breaking into Gringotts in 1998, Harry used it on a goblin and a Death Eater when they became suspicious.
Etymology: Latin impero, I command, and English "imperious".

(Imperturbable Charm)

Description: Makes objects such as doors impenetrable (by everything, including sounds and objects).
Seen/Mentioned: The spell was used in 1995 by Hermione to trap Rita Skeeter within a bottle while she was in beetle form. It was also used by Molly Weasley in the same year on the door of the room in which an Order of the Phoenix meeting was being held, in order to prevent her sons, Fred and George, from eavesdropping.

Impervius (Impervius Charm)

Pronunciation: im-PUR-vee-us
Description: This spell makes something repel (literally, become impervious to) substances and outside forces including water.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger in 1993 on Harry's glasses while in a Quidditch match and also by the Gryffindor Quidditch team. Also used in 1997, first by Ron to protect objects in Yaxley's office from rain, and then by Hermione to protect Harry, Ron and Griphook from the burning treasure in the Lestranges' vault.
Etymology: It is said that the Latin impervius means (and is the source of) "impervious"; although it is the source of the word, it is better translated as impassable, as in a mountain peak.

Inanimatus Conjurus

Pronunciation: in-an-ih-MAH-tus CON-jur-us
Description: It is a spell of unknown effect, most likely used to conjure an inanimate object.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned briefly in 1995.


Pronunciation: in-CAR-ser-us
Description: Ties someone or something up with ropes.
Seen/Mentioned: First heard in 1996, when Dolores Umbridge tries to hold off Centaurs. Also used by Harry on the Inferi in Voldemort's Horcrux cave in 1997.
Etymology: Probably English incarcerate, "to imprison". Possibly linked to the Latin in carcerem, "in(to) prison".
Notes: A non-verbal version of this spell may have been used to tie up Remus Lupin by Severus Snape during the encounter in the Shrieking Shack, and then later Peter Pettigrew in 1994. It may also have been used by Quirrell in 1992, although he is said to have merely "snapped his fingers". Also, it may have been the spell Antonin Dolohov used non-verbally to bind Ron Weasley with "shining black ropes" in a skirmish on Tottenham Court Road.
Notes (2): It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.


Incendio Hut

Bellatrix used a non-verbal incendio on Hagrid's hut

Pronunciation: in-SEN-dee-oh
Description: Produces fire.
Seen/Mentioned: It was first seen in 1994 by Arthur Weasley to create a fire in the Dursleys' hearth so that he could use Floo powder there. In 1997, this spell was used several times in battle, most noticeably when Hagrid's hut was set ablaze. It was also possibly used by Hagrid in 1991 to create a fire in the hearth before bringing Harry to London.
Etymology: Latin incendere, "to set fire (to)". Note that the first principal part of this verb (meaning "I set fire") is incendo, not incendio; Rowling's incantation does not match exactly any correct conjugation of the verb. Incêndio, in Portuguese (same pronunciation as in English) means 'huge fire'. "Encender" in Spanish means "to ignite" and "Incendie" in French means flame. (A plausible but less likely source might be that it is a back-formation from the English word "incendiary," i.e., "causing fire.")
Notes: Probably the charm used frequently by Hermione, as it is noted that creating small portable fires is a speciality of hers. This fire is said to be portable and blue, which may be a different enchanted fire, possibly the bluebells flames incantation.


Pronunciation: in-FLAY-tus
Description: Inflates objects (living or dead).
Seen/Mentioned: One of the secondary spells in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (video game)
Etymology: The prefix 'Inflate' derives from the English verb "to expand with oxygen".


Pronunciation: in-FOR-m-es
Description: Informous is a spell that is used to complete one's Folio Bruti. A page with a brief description (including weaknesses and strengths) of the charmed creature is added to the caster's Folio Bruti.
Seen/Mentioned: This was seen in the video game version of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (GBC version)
Etymology: The prefix Info derives from the English verb "to inform".

(Intruder Charm)

Description: Detects intruders and sounds an alarm.
Seen/Mentioned: Horace Slughorn used it on a Muggle-owned house he stayed in temporarily in 1996, but did not hear it go off when Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter arrived, as he was in the bath.


(Jelly-Legs Jinx)

Pronunciation: LOH-koh-moh-tor WIB-li
Description: A jinx that renders its victim's legs temporarily useless, leaving them to wobble around helplessly until the effect wears off or the counter-jinx is performed.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned as one of the jinxes in the book Curses and Counter-Curses. Then used on Harry, practising for the Third Task of the Triwizard Tournament, by Hermione. At the end of the term, Draco Malfoy, Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle tried to harass Harry Potter on the Hogwarts Express and were hit with a few hexes, curses and jinxes, including the Jelly-Legs Jinx (cast by George Weasley).

(Jelly-Brain Jinx)

Description: Presumably affects the target's mental processes.
Seen/Mentioned: During the September 1999 riot that took place during the Puddlemere United/Holyhead Harpies Quidditch game, a lot of Harpy supporters were using this jinx.
Notes: This spell may have been the spell that the Death Eaters hit Ron with in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix in the Battle of the Department of Mysteries.

(Jelly-Fingers Curse)

Description: Causes the target's fingers to become almost jelly-like to make it uneasy for the victim to grasp objects.
Seen/Mentioned: After a June 1999 Pride of Portree/Appleby Arrows Quidditch game, the losing Seeker accused his opposite number of putting this curse on him as they both closed in on the Snitch.


(Knee-Reversal Hex)

Description: Causes the victim's knees to appear on the opposite side of his/her legs.
Seen/mentioned: In Quidditch Through the Ages, Gertie Keddle uses this hex when a man playing an early form of Quidditch comes to retrieve his ball from her garden.


Lacarnum Inflamarae

Hermioe spell

This spell was used by Hermione to set Snape's cloak on fire (Lacarnum Inflamarae)

Pronunciation: la-CAR-num in-fla-MA-ray
Description: It sends a ball of fire from the wand
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in 1991 to stop Snape from cursing Harry. The incantation is only used in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.
Etymology: Latin inflammo, or the verb inflammatio meaning "to set on fire". Lacarnum, from the Latin “lacerna”, meaning “cloak”.


Pronunciation: LANG-lock
Description: Glues the subject's tongue to the roof of their mouth. Created by Severus Snape.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry on Peeves and twice on Argus Filch, to general applause.
Etymology: Probably from the French langue ("tongue") and the English "lock".


Lapifors 2

Hermione casting Lapifors

Pronunciation: LAP-ih-forz
Description: Turns small objects into real rabbits.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in the Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire video games.
Etymology: From Latin lepus meaning hare, and fors meaning strength which is a suffix often used for transfiguration spells.

(Leek Jinx)

Description: Makes leeks sprout out of the target's ears.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by a fighting Gryffindor fourth year and sixth year Slytherin before a Quidditch match in 1992.

Legilimens (Legilimency Spell)

Legilimens 786x442


Pronunciation: Le-JIL-ih-mens

Description: Allows the caster to delve into the mind of the victim, allowing the caster to see the memories, thoughts, and emotions of the victim.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Severus Snape on Harry after he had a dream about Arthur Weasley being attacked by Nagini in 1995. Also during Occlumency lessons in 1996. Also used non-verbally by Snape on Harry in 1997 to allow him to see where Harry had learned the Sectumsempra spell.
Etymology: Latin legere ("to read") and mens ("mind").


Pronunciation: lev-ee-COR-pus
Description: The victim is dangled upside-down by their ankles, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light (this may be a variant of the spell).
Seen/Mentioned: Apparently invented by the Half-Blood Prince; it is a non-verbal-only spell (although it is whispered by Hermione in 1997). Harry Potter learnt it by reading the notes written by the Half-Blood Prince. He used it on Ron. The previous year, Harry had seen (through the Pensieve used by Severus Snape) his father, James Potter, use the spell against Professor Snape. In the Order of the Phoenix film, Luna Lovegood somehow uses this against a Death Eater, although she speaks it, and the spell's name is unknown to any students until Half-Blood Prince.
Etymology: Latin levare, "raise" and corpus, "body".


Pronunciation: LIB-er-ah-cor-pus
Description: Counteracts Levicorpus.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry used the spell in 1996 to counteract Levicorpus he had inadvertently cast on Ron.
Etymology: Latin liberare, "to free", and corpus, "body".
Notes: It is not clear why Levicorpus has a specific counter-spell, and is not neutralized by simply using Finite Incantatem, although this could be due to the fact that Snape invented the spell and therefore made it irreversible except by its specific counter-curse.

Locomotor (name of object)

Pronunciation: LOH-koh-moh-tor
Description: The spell is always used with the name of a target, at which the wand is pointed (e.g. "Locomotor Trunk!"). The spell causes the named object to rise in the air and move around at the will of the caster.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Nymphadora Tonks in Harry Potter to move Harry's trunk from his room. Filius Flitwick similarly used it to move Sybill Trelawney's trunk after Dolores Umbridge sacked her. Parvati Patil and Lavender Brown used this spell to race their pencil cases around the edges of the table. A variation seen in 1998 is Piertotum Locomotor, which caused the statues of Hogwarts to be animated.
Etymology: Latin locus (place) and moto, "set in motion" (passive motor), or English locomotion.

Locomotor Mortis (Leg-Locker Curse)

Leg-Locker Curse

Neville bunny-hops into the Great Hall under a Leg-Locker Curse.

Pronunciation: LOH-koh-moh-tor MOR-tis
Description: Locks the legs together, preventing the victim from moving the legs in any fashion.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Draco Malfoy on Neville Longbottom in 1991. Used by Harry Potter on Draco Malfoy, who deflected it, in 1996. One of the spells on Pottermore.
Etymology: English locomotion, "movement" + Latin mortis, "of death".
Notes: It is unclear whether or how this spell is related to the Locomotor spell. It could, however, be that the curse "locks" any part of the body in accordance to where it is pointed, or moves the body into a position of the caster's choosing whilst placing them into an immobile state. It is possible that Draco had pointed his wand at Neville and the curse "locked" his legs together.
Notes (2): It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.




Pronunciation: LOO-mos
Description: Creates a narrow beam of light that shines from the wand's tip, like a torch.
Seen/Mentioned: Constantly throughout the series. A stronger version of this spell, Lumos Maxima is performed by Harry Potter at the Dursleys' house in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, and by both Harry and Dumbledore in the Horcrux cave in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Used in Pottermore.
Etymology: Latin lumen, "light".
Notes: opposite incantation, Nox, puts the light out.

Lumos Duo

Pronunciation: LOO-mos DOO-oh
Description: Creates an intense beam of light that projects from the wand's tip and can lock-on to various targets, turn hinkypunks solid and cause ghouls to retreat.
Seen/Mentioned: Learned and used by Ron in the video game adaptation of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
Etymology: Lumos plus Latin duo, "two".

Lumos Solem


Lumos Solem as used by Hermione on the Devil's Snare.

Pronunciation: LOO-mos SO-lem
Description: Creates a powerful ray of light as bright as the sun.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione to free Ron from the Devil's Snare. The incantation was only used in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.
Etymology: Derived from two words; the Latin lumen, meaning "light", and the Latin word for "sun", which in its accusative case is "solem".
Notes: It is possible that the quality of the light is on the warmer solar end of the spectrum; Considering the known uses that the spell has been put to, it isn't that much of a stretch to presume that the spell is used to conjure Sunlight.

Lumos Maxima

Lumos-maxima 786x442

Lumos Maxima

Pronunciation: LOO-mos Ma-cks-ima
Description: Shoots a ball of light at the place pointed, if the Wand is swung.
Seen/Mentioned: First practiced by Harry in the home of the Dursleys, then used by Dumbledore to light up the cave of the Horcrux.
Etymology: Lumos + maxima, Latin "greatest."





Description: Encases the target's head in a pumpkin.
Seen/Mentioned: PoA game, GoF game, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4/5-7.

Meteolojinx Recanto

Meteolojinx Recanto
Pronunciation: mee-tee-OH-loh-jinks reh-CAN-toh.
Description: Presumably causes weather effects caused by jinxes to cease.
Seen/Mentioned: Suggested in 1997 by Arthur Weasley to Ron (disguised as Reginald Cattermole by use of Polyjuice Potion) as the best way to clear up the rain jinx on a Ministry office. Also used by Bartemius Crouch Jr. (Disguised as Alastor Moody) In 1994 to cease the weather effect of the Great Hall's Ceiling insisting it is broken as he told Dumbledore to "Fix his ceiling".
Etymology: Meteorology, the study of weather, the word jinx and recant, "to withdraw or retract". Interestingly in modern English recant means to say that you no longer hold a belief.

Mimblewimble (Tongue-Tying Curse)

Pronunciation: MIM-bull-WIM-bull
Description: A curse which prevents certain information from being revealed by the individual upon whom the spell is placed. The curse manifests itself by causing the tongue to temporarily curl backwards upon itself.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in 1997 as a deterrent to Severus Snape, or any other unwanted visitor of 12 Grimmauld Place, from betraying their location to anyone else.


Pronunciation: MO-bil-ee-AR-bus
Description: Levitates and moves an object.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1993, Hermione Granger used the spell to move a Christmas Tree in The Three Broomsticks beside her table to hide Harry Potter, who was in Hogsmeade illegally.
Etymology: Latin mobilis, "movable" or "flexible", and arbor (alternatively arbos), "tree".
Notes: It is possible that Mobilicorpus and Mobiliarbus are variations of the same basic spell, since they share the "Mobili-" stem.


Pronunciation: MO-bil-ee-COR-pus
Description: Levitates and moves bodies.
Seen/Mentioned: Sirius Black used it on Severus Snape in 1994. It was probably used on Peter Pettigrew by Lord Voldemort in the graveyard to make him come forward.
Etymology: Latin mobilis, "movable", and corpus, "body".
Notes: It is possible that Mobiliarbus and Mobilicorpus are variations of the same basic spell, since they share the "Mobili-" stem.

Molly Weasley's Curse


Bellatrix after being hit with this curse.

Pronunciation: DER-OH
Description: Like the Avada Kedavra curse, it kills (or freezes) the victim. It turns the body gray/blue (or paler) while it turns to stone and then another twin jinx can blast the body into pieces.
Seen/Mentioned: Molly Weasley used the curse after Bellatrix Lestrange attacked Ginny Weasley. Only used in the film version.

Morsmordre (Dark Mark)

Dark Mark

Morsmordre over the Quidditch World Cup

Pronunciation: morz-MOR-duh, morz-MOHR-dah, morz-MOR-drah
Description: Conjures the Dark Mark.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Barty Crouch Jr in 1994. Also seen in 1997 over the castle to lure Albus Dumbledore to his death. It was apparently invented by Lord Voldemort.
Etymology: Latin mors, "death", and mordere, meaning "to bite" (or its French derivative mordre); this would appear to be associated with the name of Lord Voldemort's followers, the Death Eaters. The English murder might also contribute.
Notes: A possible translation might be "take a bite out of death", a fitting phrase for Death Eaters.


Pronunciation: muf-lee-AH-to
Description: This spell fills peoples' ears with an unidentifiable buzzing to keep them from hearing nearby conversations.
Seen/Mentioned: It was used in 1996 by Harry Potter and Ron Weasley on various teachers and people such as Madam Pomfrey. It was created by Severus Snape. As pointed out by Hermione, it is probably not Ministry of Magic approved. It was also used in 1997 by Hermione Granger in protection of the camp-site where Harry and she stayed in hiding.
Etymology: English muffle, "to quiet", with a pseudo-Latin or pseudo-Italian ending.


Pronunciation: mull-tee-COR-fors
Description: Multicorfors is a charm used to change the colour of one's clothing.
Seen/Mentioned: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.



Pronunciation: Nocks
Description: Turns off the light produced by Lumos.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1994, Harry Potter and Hermione Granger used this spell to turn off their wand-lights in the Shrieking Shack. Used in 1998 when Harry was in the passage beneath the Whomping Willow which leads to the Shrieking Shack. Lumos's power can be arranged so that a powerful wizard can make the charm illuminate intensely or to the wizards liking by loudness of incantation. For example "LUMOS!!!" would be powerful and "lumos" would be weaker. Also used by Harry Potter in 1998 to turn off the light so he could hide the Marauder's Map from Severus Snape.
Etymology: Latin nox, meaning "night".


(Obliteration Charm)

Description: Removes footprints.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione in 1995 to remove the footprints that she, Harry, and Ron left in the snow while walking to Hagrid's hut. Also used in 1997 by Hermione to remove the footprints she and Harry left behind them in the snow as they journeyed through Godric's Hollow.
Notes: The above instance in book five only reveals that the Obliteration Charm can remove footprints. There is no explanation as to what effect it can have on other things. It could possibly destroy things, according to its name.

Obliviate (Memory Charm)


Obliviate used by Lockhart in 1993

Pronunciation: oh-BLI-vee-ate
Description: Used to hide a memory of a particular event.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1993 when used by Gilderoy Lockhart on Harry and Ron; the spell backfired due to a faulty wand, costing Lockhart most of his own memory. Also, Hermione Granger used this spell to wipe her parents memories in 1997. Again, it was used in 1997 when Hermione Granger used the spell on 2 Death Eaters who had followed Harry, Ron, and Hermione after their escape from Bill Weasley's and Fleur Delacour's wedding.
Etymology: Latin oblivisci, "forget". The spell is most often used against Muggles who have seen something of the Wizarding world.
Notes: Memory Charms are confirmed on J.K. Rowling's website to have been developed by a witch named Mnemone Radford, who became the Ministry's first Obliviator. The Ministry of Magic employees assigned to modifying the memories of Muggles are called Obliviators. The charm can be broken by powerful magic, or extreme duress, as Lord Voldemort was able to torture Bertha Jorkins into remembering details that Barty Crouch Sr had forced her to forget using the charm. In this case, it was also shown that if the charm is too powerful, it can cause the target to develop a bad memory. This spell differs from the False Memory Charm.


Pronunciation: ob-SK(Y)OOR-oh
Description: Causes a blindfold to appear over the victim's eyes, obstructing their view of their surroundings.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger in 1997 to obstruct the portrait of Phineas Nigellus's view of their location.
Notes: This spell might only affect characters in paintings; there are no other references to this spell.
Etymology: English word obscure, meaning "unclear" or "unnoticeable".


Pronunciation: oh-PUG-noh
Description: Apparently causes animals or beings of lesser intelligence to attack.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger in 1996 to attack Ron Weasley with a summoned flock of canaries during an argument.
Etymology: Latin oppugno, "I attack".



Hermione using this charm to conjure a Christmas wreath to place on James and Lily Potter's graves.

Pronunciation: or-KID-ee-us
Description: Makes a bouquet of flowers appear out of the caster's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in 1994 by Mr. Ollivander to test Fleur Delacour's wand. Probably used non-verbally by Tom Riddle to present flowers to Mrs. Smith.
Etymology: English orchid and Latin suffix -eous, "of or bearing (the root word)".
Notes: A variation of this spell may have been used when Hermione Granger conjured a Christmas wreath to place on James and Lily Potter's graves in 1997.



Pronunciation: pak
Description: Packs a trunk, or perhaps any luggage.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by Remus Lupin in his office, and in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix by Nymphadora Tonks, once verbally and again non-verbally.

(Patented Daydream Charm)

Pronunciation: Unknown
Description: Gives the spell caster a highly-realistic 30-minute daydream. Side effects include mild drooling and a vacant expression.
Seen/Mentioned: These were invented by Fred and George Weasley and sold in 1996 at their joke shop, presumably in the form of some kind of physical object, similar to Skiving Snackboxes.

Partis Temporus

Partis Temporus
Pronunciation: par-tís temp-oar-us
Description: Creates a temporary gap through protective magical barriers.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Albus Dumbledore in the Horcrux cave in the film version of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. He uses it so that he and Harry can pass through the ring of fire used to ward off the Inferi.
Etymology: Partis is a plural form of the French verb partir, which means "to separate," "to go away," "to leave," or "to depart." Temporis is Latin for "time."


Pronunciation: pur-ick-you-lum
Description: Creates red sparks/flares to shoot from the users wand
Seen/Mentioned: Used during the third task of the Tri-wizard Tournament by Harry. Also believed to have been used in Pottermore, but is called the "Red Sparks Spell".
Etymology: Periculum is Latin for "danger".

(Permanent Sticking Charm)

Description: Makes objects permanently stay in place.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in 1995, when Sirius Black suspected that his mother's painting was fixed to the wall with such a Charm. It is implied that the portrait in the Muggle Prime Minister's office also has such a charm on it.
Notes: It is never said whether the charm prevents the object from being removed by cutting away the section of wall. The incantation could be gluten sempra, meaning glue forever, or adher sempra, which means stick forever.

Peskipiksi Pesternomi

Peskipiksi-pesternomi 786x442
Pronunciation: PES-key PIX-ee PES-ter NO-mee
Description: The one time it was used, it had absolutely no effect.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Lockhart to attempt to remove Cornish Pixies.
Suggested Etymology: English pesky meaning "annoying", English pixie meaning "a supernatural being", English pester meaning "to annoy", English no for negative and English me for the first person pronoun.
Notes: It is not known if the spell works or not. It also suspiciously sounds like "Pesky pixie pester no me."

Petrificus Totalus (Full Body-Bind Curse)


Used in 1991 (Petrificus Totalus)

Pronunciation: pe-TRI-fi-cus to-TAH-lus
Description: Used to temporarily bind the victim's body in a position much like that of a soldier at attention; the victim will usually fall to the ground.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in 1991 by Hermione, who was trying to prevent Neville from stopping her, Ron, and Harry from leaving the common room to hunt for the Philosopher's Stone. Also used in the Hall of Prophecy in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix to petrify one of the Death Eaters pursuing the group. Also used on Harry by Draco Malfoy in the train in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Used also in Pottermore.
Etymology: Latin petra, meaning "stone", and fieri (past participle factus), meaning "to become"; totalus comes from Latin "totus", meaning "complete".
Note: Albus Dumbledore used Petrificus Totalus on Harry during the first Battle of Hogwarts while Draco Malfoy disarmed him.

Piertotum Locomotor

Pronunciation: pee-ayr-TOH-tum (or peer-TOH-tum) loh-koh-MOH-tor
Description: Spell used to animate statues and suits of armour to do the caster's bidding.
Seen/Mentioned: In the Battle of Hogwarts, Professor McGonagall used this spell to animate the suits of armour and statues within Hogwarts, to defend the castle. Possibly used by Albus Dumbledore to enchant the statues on the fountain in the entrance to the Ministry of Magic Department.
Etymology: Pier means "friend" or "colleague", totum refers to "the whole" or "total", and locomotor means "the movement of".

(Placement Charm)

Description: A charm which temporarily places an object upon a desired target.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them.

Point Me (Four-Point Spell)

Pronunciation: English phrase
Description: Causes the caster's wand to act as a compass, and point North.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione Granger taught it to Harry Potter, who used it during the Triwizard Tournament, particularly to navigate the hedge maze during the Third Task.
Note: This spell may be an invention of Hermione Granger; it is unclear in the Goblet of Fire text whether she invented it herself or found it through research. Given that the incantation is English (whereas almost all other mentioned spells have incantations based on Latin or other old languages) and that none of the other champions of the Tournament seem to use the spell, it seems likely that Hermione invented the spell.


Pronunciation: POR-tus
Description: Turns an object into a port-key
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Albus Dumbledore in 1996.
Etymology: Latin porta, meaning "gate", or portare, meaning "to carry" (as in to carry the caster or target to another location). There is a Latin word portus, meaning "harbour", but it is inappropriate in this context.
Notes: Portkeys were first seen in 1994 as a means for Harry, Hermione, and the Weasleys to go to the Quidditch World Cup. However, the spell used in its creation was not seen until 1995.

Priori Incantato

Pronunciation: pri-OR in-can-TAH-toh
Description: Causes the echo (a shadow or image) of the last spell cast by a wand to emanate from it.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Amos Diggory in 1994 to discover the last spell cast by Harry's wand after it was found in the hands of Winky, a house-elf.
Etymology: Latin prior, "previous", and incantare, "to speak a spell" (past participle incantatum).
Notes: The nature of the "echo" depends on the original spell. The echo of a conjuring spell, for example, is the object conjured; the echo of the Cruciatus Curse is the screaming of the victim; the echo of an Avada Kedavra curse is the image of its victim.
Notes(2): Amos Diggory used this spell to find out if Harry's wand (held by Winky, Bartemius Crouch's house elf) cast the Dark Mark.
Notes(3): Apparently the spell is cumulative, with the user able to go further back and see spells that the wand performed after the latest spell. Harry suggests this in 1997. Hermione does not contradict his claim, suggesting this is true.

(Protean Charm)

Description: Causes copies of an object to be remotely affected by changes made to the original.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in 1995. Hermione Granger put the charm on a number of fake Galleons. Instead of the serial number around the edge of the coin, the time and date of the next meeting of Dumbledore's Army appeared. It is possible that this charm is used on the Death Eaters' Dark Marks.
Etymology: The English word Protean derives from Proteus, a god in Greek Mythology. Proteus was a shape-shifter, able to take many forms. As a result, the word Protean has come to refer to versatility, flexibility, or an ability to assume many forms. "Protean" is also similar to "protein", derived from the same root, meaning a variable, flexible substance which forms strong bonds between its constituent parts.
Notes: On Hermione's fake galleons, when the date changes, the coin becomes hot, alerting the owner to look at the coin. This may not be a feature of the original charm. It may be a Flagrante Curse, when the Protean Charm changes the coin the curse may activate. It would seem from this that you can decide what the effects on the charmed objects are. Possibly by saying something along the lines of "Protean flagrante." although this is just speculation
Notes (2): The Protean Charm is a N.E.W.T. standard charm, according to Terry Boot, who is incredulous that Hermione can perform the spell even though she is only in her fifth year (N.E.W.T.s are taken in the seventh year at Hogwarts).

Protego (Shield Charm)

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh
Description: The Shield Charm causes minor to moderate jinxes, curses, and hexes to rebound upon the attacker.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1995, in which Harry is taught this spell by Hermione in preparation for the third task in the Triwizard Tournament. Albus Dumbledore uses a similar spell which reverses the construction of glass back into sand when Voldemort sent shards of glass to try to stab Dumbledore. Fred and George Weasley enchanted hats they dubbed "shield hats" with this spell in 1997.
Etymology: Latin protego, "I cover" or "I protect".
Notes: The original description of this spell states that it rebounds minor jinxes to the caster. However, it is shown in the books that it can also be used to reflect or lessen the effects of more powerful spells, depending on the skill of the caster. In 1998, it is also shown to be able to create a sort of force-field across an area, and is used frequently to prevent two participants in an argument from reaching each other.

Protego Horribilis

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh horr-uh-BIHL-ihs
Description: A powerful shield charm against dark magic.
Seen/Mentioned: Cast by Professor Flitwick in an attempt to strengthen the castle's defences in the Battle of Hogwarts.
Etymology: Latin Protego, "I protect", and Horribilis, "horrible , frightful, dreadful".

Protego Maxima

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh MAX-ee-Ma
Description: A powerful shield charm against dark magic. Was so powerful that it could also disintegrate people that came too close.
Seen/Mentioned: Cast by Professor Flitwick, Professor McGonagall, Professor Slughorn and Mrs. Weasley in an attempt to strengthen the castle's defences in the Battle of Hogwarts.
Etymology: Latin Protego, "I protect"

Protego Totalum

Pronunciation: pro-TAY-goh prah-TEH-go toh-TAH-lum
Description: Casts a shield charm over a small area that will not let anything pass through. Except for the Unforgivable Curses: Avada Kedavra, Imperio and Crucio .
Seen/Mentioned: In 1997, this was one of the spells used by Hermione Granger and Harry Potter to protect their camp site from unwanted visitors.
Etymology: Latin protego meaning "to protect" and Latin totus meaning "as a whole".[9]

(Purple Firecrackers)

Description: Causes purple firecrackers to shoot out from the tip of one's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: On 31 October 1991, Albus Dumbledore used this spell to get the attention of panicking diners in the Great Hall when a troll was loose in the castle.

(Pus-squirting hex)

Description: Causes yellowish goo to squirt from one's nose.
Seen/Mentioned: Morfin Gaunt used this hex on Bob Ogden.



Pronunciation: KWIY-uh-tus
Description: Makes a magically magnified voice return to normal. A counter to Sonorus.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in 1994 by Ludo Bagman.
Etymology: Latin quietus, "calm" or "quiet".
Notes: It is conjectural whether Quietus could be used alone to magically quiet a person's voice, or only counteracts Sonorus.


Redactum Skullus

Pronunciation: red-AK-tum SKULL-us
Description: Redactum Skullus is a hex that shrinks the target's head. It is the counter-spell to Engorgio Skullus.
Seen/Mentioned: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.


Pronunciation: re-DOO-see-oh
Description: Makes an enlarged object smaller. Counter-charm to Engorgio.
Seen/Mentioned: In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1, Harry Potter, after checking his Blackthorn wand on the Bluebell flames with Engorgio, casts this spell to shorten the formerly enlarged flames.
Etymology: English reduce, "to shrink". (Latin has a verb reducere, present tense reduco. This is the source of the English "reduce", but has a different meaning.) Also in Italian Riduco first person present tense of Ridurre, same root of Latin Reducere.
Notes: Whether Reducio could also be used by itself rather than countering Engorgio is unknown. If it could, it would shrink normal sized items into miniature versions of themselves. References in 1992 by Arthur Weasley to "shrinking door keys" make this seem likely.

Reducto (Reductor Curse)

Ginerva red

Ginny casting this curse on a dummy Mechanical Death Eater.

Pronunciation: re-DUK-toh
Description: Breaks objects. In stronger usages, disintegrates them.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1995, Harry used it on one of the hedges of the Triwizard maze and ends up burning a small hole in it; in 1995, Gryffindors in Harry Potter's year referenced Parvati Patil as being able to reduce a table full of Dark Detectors to ashes, and Harry and his friends later used the spell in the Department of Mysteries against the Death Eaters, shattering many Prophecy Orbs in the process; in 1997, a member of the Order of the Phoenix attempted to use this spell to break down a door which Death Eaters had blocked when the Death Eaters had cornered Dumbledore in the Lightning Struck Tower.
Etymology: English reduce, "to bring down;destroy".
Notes: Reparo makes a good counter-curse.

(Refilling Charm)

Description: Refills whatever the caster points at with the drink originally in the container.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, when Harry notices that Hagrid and Slughorn are running out of wine. This may have also been in the Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 film as the water in the cups are shown refilling themselves.


Description: Reverts minor magically-induced ailments, such as paralysis and poisoning.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)


Pronunciation: Re-LASH-ee-oh
Description: A spell used to make the subject release what ever it is holding or binding.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry Potter against Grindylows in the second task of the Triwizard Tournament. Also used in 1997 and 1998, when Hermione used this spell to free Mrs. Cattermole from the chained chair and to free the Ukrainian Ironbelly on which they were to get out from Gringotts.]]
Etymology: Probably from the French verb relâcher ="to release, to set free", or Italian rilascio (pronounced the same way as the spell)= "I release".


Pronunciation: ree-nur-VAH-tay, REN-ur-vayt
Description: revives a stunned person.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1994, Amos Diggory used it to wake up Winky and Albus Dumbledore used it to wake up Viktor Krum. Harry Potter later used it to try and reawaken a cursed Dumbledore in the seaside cave.
Etymology: Officially renamed from Ennervate by J.K. Rowling.[10] Rennervate means "to energize", whilst the former Ennervate, meant "to weaken,". [11]


Pronunciation: This information is currently unknown.
Description: Used to reverse unsuccessful transformations.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen only thus far in A Beginner's Guide to Transfiguration on Pottermore.
Etymology: This information is currently unknown.


Pronunciation: reh-PAH-roh
Description: Used to repair objects.
Seen/Mentioned: Countless times throughout the books. Shattered objects are often described as having "flown" back together. However, substances contained in the broken objects don't get back inside. In 1995 Harry smashed a bowl of murtlap essence. He could repair the bowl but the murtlap essence remained splashed to the floor.
Oculus Reparo

A form of this spell used by Hermione on Harry's glasses.

Etymology: Latin reparo meaning "to renew" or "repair". [9]
Notes: This is the final spell used in the Harry Potter series. Reparo has been seen to repair non-magical items, however it seems to have an inability at repairing magical items or items that have magic placed upon them. An example is Harry's Nimbus 2000 shown in 1993 which he is told is irreparable after it is destroyed by the Whomping Willow. Wands are also irreparable, as shown in 1992 when Ron's wand snapped after he and Harry crashed onto the Hogwarts grounds. Despite his use of Spellotape, Ron's wand malfunctioned throughout the entire novel. Another example is in 1997 when Hermione tried to fix Harry's broken wand, which was snapped by her errant Blasting Curse. However, Harry repaired his wand with the Elder Wand. Since the Elder Wand is the most powerful wand in the universe, it makes sense that it would produce the most powerful Repairing Charm.

Repello Muggletum (Muggle-Repelling Charm)

Pronunciation: reh-PELL-loh MUG-ul-tum, MUGG-gleh-tum, mugg-GLEE-tum
Description: Keeps Muggles away from wizarding places by causing them to remember important meetings they missed and to cause the Muggles in question to forget what they were doing.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages as being used to keep Muggles away from the Quidditch World Cup. Hogwarts was also said to be guarded by the Muggle-Repelling Charm. It was also used by Harry and Hermione on numerous occasions, among many other spells, to protect and hide their camp site in 1997.

Repello Inimicum


Snatchers being desintegrated by the power of this spell combined with other protections.

Pronunciation: re-PEH-lloh ee-nee-MEE-cum
Description: Disintegrates the persons entering this charm.
Seen/Mentioned: This spell was used by professors Filius Flitwick and Horace Slughorn along with Order of the Phoenix member Molly Weasley to protect Hogwarts Castle in 1998.
Etymology: Latin "Repello", meaning "Push Back" and "inimicum", the accusative singular form of "inimīcus" meaning "foe" or "enemy".

Rictusempra (Tickling Charm)

Pronunciation: ric-tuhs-SEM-pra
Description: Causes an extreme tickling sensation that, in the case of Draco Malfoy, made him drop to the floor laughing.
Seen/Mentioned: By Harry Potter on Draco Malfoy in 1992, when they fought in the Duelling Club.
Etymology: Possibly the sum of two words; The Latin rictus, meaning "The expanse of an open mouth", and semper, meaning "Always". Rictus is generally used as an expression of terror, however, "always an open mouth" would, in most cases, correspond to the act of laughing uncontrollably.
Notes: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.

Riddikulus (Boggart-Banishing Spell)

Pronunciation: rih-dih-KYU-lus
Description: A spell used when fighting a Boggart, "Riddikulus" forces the Boggart to take the appearance of an object the caster is focusing on. Best results can be achieved if the caster is focusing on something humorous, with the desire that laughter will weaken the Boggart.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1993, when taught by Remus Lupin.
Etymology: Latin word ridiculus, "laughable" (but perhaps "absurd" or "silly" in this context).
Notes: The effect of the spell seems to rely primarily on the state of mind of the caster. It doesn't actually change the shape of a boggart into something humorous, but rather whatever the caster is concentrating on at the moment of the casting, as when Neville was thinking of his grandmother's dress. Presumably, Mrs. Weasley couldn't take her mind off of her fears for her family, so the Boggart was changed into other members of the family rather than something humorous.

(Rose Growth)

Description: Causes rosebushes grow at an unusually fast pace.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter Trading Card Game

(Rowboat spell)

Description: A spell invented by Hagrid which propels row boats to a pre-set destination.
Seen/mentioned: Hagrid used the spell on the row-boats at Hogwarts, to transport the First years from Hogsmeade Station to the Boathouse. It may also have been the spell that he used to propel the row-boat that he used to take Harry from the Hut-on-the-Rock back to the mainland in 1991.


Salvio Hexia

Pronunciation: SAL-vee-oh HECKS-ee-ah
Description: Unknown, as it was one of several spells that were used to help strengthen Harry's camp-site, and had no seen effects. Possibly deflects minor hexes aimed at an object (the tent)
Etymology: Possibly derived from the Latin "salveo," meaning "to be in good health," and used as a form of greeting and farewell, and a pseudo-Latin derivative of the English word "hex"—hence, "Farewell, hexes!"
Seen/Mentioned: Harry and Hermione cast this spell to strengthen their camp-site's defences against intruders in 1997.
Notes: Possibly the Hex Deflection spells the fake Moody mentioned in 1994.

Scourgify (Scouring Charm)

Pronunciation: SKUR-jih-fiy
Description: Used to clean something.
Seen/Mentioned: First used by Nymphadora Tonks to clean Hedwig's cage in 1995. Later, Ginny Weasley performed the spell to clean up the Stinksap on the Hogwarts Express, also used by James Potter on Severus Snape after he shouted various curses and obscenities at him.
Etymology: Perhaps related to English scour, "clean". -ify is a common English suffix meaning "to make ...". Therefore scourgify could mean "to make clean".


Pronunciation: sec-tum-SEMP-rah
Description: A dark spell that creates large, blood-oozing gashes on the subject as if said subject had been "slashed by a sword". Invented by Severus Snape.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry in 1997 against Draco Malfoy, and then later against both the Inferi in Lord Voldemort's Horcrux chamber, and Snape used it against George Weasley (was unintentional; aimed for a Death Eater that tried to curse Lupin) in the Order's flight from Privet Drive. Harry learned it in Snape's old Potions textbook. In 1998, the spell is said to be Severus Snape's "signature" spell.
Etymology: Latin sectum, "cut", and semper, "always".
Notes: The spell can apparently be used against any object, but was not effective when used against Inferi because they could not bleed. The movement of the wand seems to affect how someone is cut, suggested by the erratic patterns of slashes left on Draco Malfoy's face and chest, produced by Harry Potter's wild wand-swings while using the spell against Draco. Wounds caused by this spell can be healed as proved by Severus Snape who after Harry hit Draco Malfoy with this spell he healed Draco's wounds and told him to go and get treated with dittany at once so that he would even avoid any sign of any wound. However it seems that it depends on the caster's magical abilities because Molly Weasley could not heal and restore George Weasley's ear that was cursed off by this spell.

Shield penetration spell

Pronunciation: unknown
Description: Presumably annihilates magical enchantments and shields.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Voldemort to break the enchantments placed around Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in 1998 by Filius Flitwick, Minerva McGonagall, and Molly Weasley.
Etymology: unknown

Smokescreen Spell

Description:' Produces a defensive cloud of smoke from the wand tip; the incantation is believed to be Fumos because of the similarities between the two spells.
Seen/Mentioned: Used on Pottermore.



The snake created by Draco Malfoy (Serpensortia)

Pronunciation: ser-pen-SOR-shah, SER-pehn-SOR-tee-ah
Description: Conjures a serpent from the spell-caster's wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Draco Malfoy while dueling Harry Potter in 1992.
Etymology: Latin serpens meaning "a snake" and Latin ortis meaning "source".[9]

Silencio (Silencing Charm)

Pronunciation: sih-LEN-see-oh
Description: Makes something silent.
Seen/Mentioned: First used by Hermione in 1996 to silence a frog and a raven in Charms class, then later used to silence a Death Eater that was trying to tell his comrades where they were.
Etymology: Probably Latin silentium, "silence". Also, silencio and silêncio (which is closer to the English pronunciation) mean "silence" in Spanish and Portuguese, respectively.


Pronunciation: SKUR-je
Description: Cleans up ectoplasm, the slime-like residue left by certain ghosts. The spell manifests as a blast of greenish suds.
Seen/Mentioned: The Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets video game. Harry finds it in a spell book in the Restricted Section of the Hogwarts Library(possibly misfiled) and uses it to clear doorways and treasure chests that have been slimed-over by malevolent ghosts.

Slugulus Eructo (Slug Vomiting Charm)

Description: A jet of green light strikes the victim, who then vomits slugs for ten minutes. The sizes of the vomited slugs decrease with time.
Seen/Mentioned: In Chamber of Secrets, Ron attempts to use it on Draco; the spell backfired and hit him instead. It is also a spell that can be bought in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.
Notes: In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, an incantation was used, "Eat Slugs!", it's unknown if that's its true incantation or not, although it is unlikey to be.

(Sonorous Charm)

Description: This charm emits a magnified roar from the tip of the wand. This noise disrupts all in its path, and can even be used to harm opponents.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game)



Fudge commentating the 1994 Quidditch World Cup. (Sonorus)

Pronunciation: soh-NOHR-uhs
Description: Magnifies the spell caster's voice when one's wand is pointing to the side of the caster's neck.
Seen/Mentioned: By Ludo Bagman in 1994 at the beginning of the Quidditch World Cup and by Albus Dumbledore several times in the Triwizard Championship. Used by Lord Voldemort several times during the Battle of Hogwarts in 1998.
Etymology: Latin sonorus, "loud; noisy".
Notes: The counter-spell is Quietus. In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Cornelius Fudge simply holds his wand to his throat while speaking, it is possible that he has performed a Nonverbal spell.

Specialis Revelio (Scarpin's Revelaspell)

Pronunciation: speh-see-AH-LIS reh-VEL-ee-oh
Description: Apparently causes an object to show its hidden secrets or magical properties.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger to find out more of Harry's Advanced Potion-Making book in 1996. Used by Ernie Macmillan to find out ingredients of a potion. Its precise effects are unknown, as there are no recorded occasions of the spell being successful.
Etymology: Latin specialis, "particular;individual" and revelare (present tense revelo), "unveil".
Notes: In 1994, Severus Snape cast a similar spell, but with different words ("Reveal your secrets!"), on the Marauder's Map, though he may have just been saying those words as he cast the spell non-verbally. The spell may also be able to distinguish different ingredients in a potion, though this is noted to merely sound impressive.

Spongify (Cushioning Charm)

Pronunciation: spun-JIH-fy
Description: Creates an invisible cushioned area. Used primarily in broomstick manufacturing, to provide more comfort to the rider.
Seen/Mentioned: Was used to cushion Harry, Ron, and Hermione's fall in Gringotts in 1997.

(Stealth Sensoring Spell)

Description: Detects those under magical disguise.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1996, Professor Umbridge cast this around her office.


Pronunciation: STÉ-lee-us
Description: A hex that causes the victim to sneeze for a short period of time. This spell is used in duelling to distract the opponent.
Seen/Mentioned: It is only seen in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (video game).
Etymology: Steleus derives from the Latin sternuo, meaning I sneeze.

(Stinging Hex, Stinging Jinx)


Stinging Jinx effect.

Description: Produces a stinging sensation in the victim, resulting in angry red welts and occasionally the severe inflammation of the affected area.
Seen/Mentioned: Harry Potter inadvertently used one on Severus Snape during Occlumency lessons in 1996. It was non-debilitating in that instance, but it is stronger when intentionally cast, as shown by the results of Hermione Granger's Stinging Hex used on Harry Potter in 1998 to purposefully distort Harry's appearance. Lucius Malfoy calls it the Stinging Jinx in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows.

Stupefy (Stunning Spell)

Pronunciation: STOO-puh-fye
Description: Stuns victim. If used too forcefully, it will put the victim in an unconscious state.
Seen/Mentioned: Often; particularly by a number of wizards and witches (including Dolores Umbridge) against Minerva McGonagall in 1996. It's also taught by Harry in his D.A. meetings.
Etymology: English stupefy, which means 'to put into a stupor', a temporary vegetative state.
Notes: The physical manifestation of the spell is a beam of red light emanating from the caster's wand. The spell wears off after a short time, and can be countered by Rennervate. Nearly useless on magic-resistant creatures such as dragons, trolls and giants unless more than one Stupefy spell is used at the same time. The force of the spell is additive or perhaps even exponential, and it can cause severe injury if many spells are used on a target that is not normally resistant to its effects. Hagrid, as a half-giant, is impervious to this spell - or at least, a lone one.

(Supersensory Charm)

Description: Presumably causes the caster to have enhanced senses, or to be able to sense things they would not normally sense.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned by Ron outside of the Hogwarts Express in 2017 as a potential substitute for using mirrors while driving a Muggle auto mobile.

(Switching Spell)

Description: Causes two objects to be switched for one another
Seen/Mentioned: Harry contemplated using this spell against his dragon in the first task of the Triwizard Tournament. ((He considered swapping its fangs for wine gums)). Neville Longbottom misuses the spell, transplanting his ears onto a cactus.




Xenophilius Lovegood triggering the Taboo on purpose.

Description: A jinx which may be placed upon a word or a name, so that whenever that word is spoken, a magical disturbance is created which alerts the caster of the Taboo to the location of the speaker. Any protective enchantments in effect around the speaker are broken when the Tabooed word is spoken aloud.
Seen/Mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, this spell is placed on the word "Voldemort"; Harry, Ron and Hermione are tracked this way to Tottenham Court Road. Ron tells the other two to stop using the word as he began to fear the name might be a jinx, later discovering it to be a Taboo. Later in the book, Harry accidentally says Voldemort's name again, resulting in the trio being caught by Death Eaters and taken to Malfoy Manor.
Notes: A possible incantation could be "vomica vox" meaning "cursed word" presumably followed by the word.


Pronunciation: tuh-RAHN-tuh-LEHG-rah
Description: Makes victim's legs dance uncontrollably (recalling the tarantella dance).
Seen/Mentioned: First used by Draco Malfoy on Harry in the Duelling Club in 1992.
Etymology: Italian tarantella, a kind of fast country dance once popular in parts of Italy, supposedly from the frantic motion caused by the bite of a tarantula; and allegro, a musical term meaning "quick".
Notes: It can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley in LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4.




Description: Transfigures the target's head into a tentacle.
Seen/Mentioned: LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7.


Pronunciation: TUR-jee-oh
Description: A spell used to siphon matter from a surface, eg. blood, ink, dust, etc.
Seen/Mentioned: Hermione Granger used the spell in 1996 to remove blood from Harry's face. It is later used to remove spilled ink from parchment. It was also used in 1997 to clean off a handkerchief by Ron and to dust off a picture of Gellert Grindelwald in Bathilda Bagshot's house by Harry Potter.
Etymology: Latin tergere, "wipe off; cleanse".

(Toenail Growth Hex)

Description: Causes the toenails to grow at an extreme and uncontrollable rate.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1996, Harry uses this to much applause from classmates.
Notes: This is a hex that is probably not approved by the Ministry of Magic, as it was invented by Severus Snape. And it is unknown whether "Toenail Growth Hex" is its real name, as its title was never mentioned.

(Tooth-growing spell)

Description: A spell that re-grows lost teeth.
Seen/Mentioned: Ted Tonks used it to re-grow Harry Potter's tooth that he had lost during the Battle of the Seven Potters.

(Transmogrifian Torture)

Description: Unknown effect upon victim; most likely extreme torture that can lead to death. Given the source, the Torture may not actually exist.
Seen/Mentioned: Gilderoy Lockhart suggested that it was this curse that "killed" Mrs. Norris after she was really found petrified on a torch bracket.
Etymology: English "transmogrify", meaning "to change or alter greatly, often to grotesque effect", possibly implying that the curse changes the shape of the victim to cause pain.

(Trip Jinx)

Description: A jinx to trip up or impede the target. Precise effects unknown.
Seen/Mentioned: Seen in 1996. It was cast successfully on Harry Potter by Draco Malfoy, when he and other members of the Inquisitorial Squad attempted to round up members of Dumbledore's Army.
Notes: In LEGO Harry Potter: Years 1-4, it can be bought at Wiseacre's Wizarding Equipment in Diagon Alley.


(Unbreakable Vow)

Description: Causes a vow taken by a witch or wizard to be inviolable; if they should break it, the consequence is death.
Seen/Mentioned: Snape takes an Unbreakable Vow with Narcissa Malfoy at the beginning of Half-Blood Prince, vowing to help Narcissa's son Draco with a task given to him by Voldemort, and to finish the task should Draco prove incapable. Fred and George attempted to force an Unbreakable Vow upon Ron as children. According to Ron, it causes death when the vow is broken.

(Unbreakable Charm)

Description: Makes something unbreakable.
Seen/Mentioned: Towards the end of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Hermione casts the charm on a jar, in which she puts Rita Skeeter in her Animagus beetle form to prevent her from transforming back into a human.

(Undetectable Extension Charm)

Description: Causes a container's capacity to be increased, without changing the object's appearance on the outside.
Seen/Mentioned: This spell is most likely the one Arthur Weasley used to allow eight people, six large trunks, two owls, and a rat to fit comfortably inside his modified Ford Anglia in 1992. Probably used on the tent in which the Weasleys, Harry and Hermione stay during the Quidditch World Cup in 1994; the tent is also used by Harry, Ron and Hermione as shelter in 1997. Also, Hermione cast this spell upon her handbag in the same year.




Pronunciation: ven-TUS
Description: A strong blast of wind is shot from the end of the wand, used to push objects out of the way.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in the video game version of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire.
Etymology: Ventus is a Latin word, meaning "wind".
Notes: Not said aloud in the books or in the films, but quite possibly the Hot-Air Charm Hermione and Dumbledore use in the books to produce a stream of warm air from the tip of their wands to dry off.


Pronunciation: VERD-dee-mil-lee-us
Description: A spell that shoots green sparks at the end of the wand.
Seen/Mentioned: Used in the video game version of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, a spell that's learned when you defeat a Bowtruckle in the Forbidden Forest. Also used in the Chamber of Secrets and Philosopher's Stone(Game Boy Colour) video games. In the latter, it is used to attack enemies with green lightning.

Vipera Evanesca


Snape casting this spell to vanish the serpent cast upon by Draco.

Pronunciation: VIYP-er-uh ehv-uhn-EHS-kuh
Description: Counter Spell for Serpensortia. Seems not to merely "Vanish", but causes the snake to smoulder from head and tail until it is reduced to a pile of ashes.
Seen/Mentioned: Severus Snape cast this spell in 1992 at the Duelling Club to get rid of a snake that Draco Malfoy had conjured while duelling Harry Potter. Albus Dumbledore also may have used this spell to vanish Voldemort's snake during their Duel in the Ministry Atrium.
Etymology: Vipera is a genus of venomous vipers, a type of snake. Evanesca likely shares its origin with Evanesco, which means "disappear" in Latin.

Vulnera Sanentur

Vulnera Sanatur

Snape using this spell to cure Draco Malfoy's wounds.

Pronunciation: vul-nur-ah sahn-en-tur
Description: Causes wounds and gashes to heal up and any blood to return to the victim.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Severus Snape to heal the wounds of Draco Malfoy caused by the Sectumsempra curse cast by Harry Potter in the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.
Etymology: Vulnera Sanentur derives from the Latin vulnus, "wound," [12] and sanare, "to heal"; it is translated "may the wounds be healed."[13]



Pronunciation: wah-dee-WAH-see
Description: Appears to launch small objects through the air.
Seen/Mentioned: Used only once in the series, by Remus Lupin in 1993 to expel a wad of chewing gum from the key hole Peeves put it in, launching it up Peeves's nose.
Etymology: Latin vado, "go", and possibly vasa, "implements, vessels"; but this part is obscure. (The letter "V" in Latin is also written "U", and pronounced as the English "W".) It could also come from Swedish vadd, which means "soft mass" (in this case it was gum), and French vas y, "go there", as Lupin did not just make the gum fly out of the key hole, but he directed it up Peeves's nose. The word could also just be based on the English wad, as in "a wad of gum".
Notes: In reference to what was mentioned above under Etymology, it can be presumed that Waddiwasi could be the Banishing Charm or the Placement Charm mentioned in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them under the Kelpie entry.

Wingardium Leviosa (Levitation/Hover Charm)

Wingardium leviosa
Pronunciation: win-GAR-dee-um lev-ee-OH-sa
Description: Levitates objects.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1991, when Professor Flitwick's first-year class practised the spell. Later in the same year, Ron Weasley performed the spell on the club of a mountain troll. In 1992, Dobby uses this although Harry is accused of it. The spell was also used in 1997 by Harry to levitate the side-car of Sirius's flying motorbike. Ron also used as the charm to make a twig fly into a knot on the Whomping Willow in 1998. It was again used in Pottermore. The motion to perform it is described as a "swish and flick"
Etymology: "Wingardium" certainly contains English wing meaning "fly" [14], and Latin arduus, meaning "high" [2]. "Leviosa" most probably originates in Latin levis, meaning "light".

See also


Notes and references

  1., accessed 4-22-2008
  2. 2.0 2.1 Online Dictionary, Online Dictionary, accessed 11-25-2008
  3. J.K.Rowling Official Site
  4. Dictionary Reference, accessed 7-11-2008.
  5. Patronus Charm at Wikipedia
  6. Goblet of Fire, Ch. 19
  7. Rowling, Joanne. Result of F.A.Q. Poll. Retrieved on 2007 July 24.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Dictionary and Grammar Aid, University of Notre Dame, accessed 3-18-2008.
  12. "Vulnus" on Wiktionary
  13. "Sanare" on Wiktionary
  14. Ask Oxford, Oxford English Dictionary, accessed 3-18-2008

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