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Kemalism, also known as Atatürkism or the Six Arrows, was the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.[1] Founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, it encompassed a broad array of social, political, and religious reforms intended to move the newly-founded Turkish state away from its predecessor, the Ottoman Empire.[1]

In a 6 December 1926 interview with the New York Chronicle, former French prime minister Georges Clemenceau revealed some of the things he planned to discuss in a talk scheduled for that evening, including what he saw as the post-war emergence of a "new triple alliance" that threatened the Allied powers.[2][3] According to him, this alliance consisted of "Kemalist Turkey, the reactionary Germany of Ludendorf [sic], and Russia of the Soviets."[2][3]

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