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The disciplinary hearing of Harry Potter occurred before the Wizengamot on 12 August, 1995 as the boy wizard was charged for using underage magic, that is, he was forced to conjure a Patronus Charm to save himself and his cousin Dudley Dursley from Dementors in the Muggle town of Little Whinging ten days earlier.
As this hearing took place in the midst of the Ministry of Magic's attempts to discredit Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter, there was some bias against Harry's case in hopes to expel the boy and stop him from claiming Lord Voldemort had returned, and Minister for Magic Cornelius Fudge was determined to convict Harry for this crime. Despite this, Harry was cleared of all charges during the hearing.
On the night of 2 August 1995, while Harry and his cousin Dudley Dursley were returning home, two Dementors appeared in Little Whinging. To save himself and Dudley, Harry performed the Patronus Charm and successfully repelled the Dementors. However, being an underage wizard, Harry was not supposed to perform magic outside Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. As a result, he was formally accused of performing underage magic, and was expelled by the Ministry of Magic. However, after Albus Dumbledore's intervention, the expulsion was retracted and changed to a disciplinary hearing which would take place ten days later, on 12 August at 9 am, at the Ministry of Magic's headquarters, before the Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement Amelia Bones was in her office.
Cornelius Fudge, then-Minister for Magic, was attempting to discredit Harry and Dumbledore's claims about the return of Lord Voldemort, and so he changed the hearing to an earlier time (8 am) and a different location (Courtroom Ten) in the hopes of making Harry miss it, as well as trying Harry in front of the entire Wizengamot. Due to the change of time, Harry was five minutes late, but managed to attend it anyway, as he was already at the Ministry, having arrived there with Arthur Weasley. It was later revealed that Dolores Umbridge, a Ministry bureaucrat who served as Senior Undersecretary to the Minister for Magic and one of Harry's prosecutors during the hearing, had secretly ordered the Dementors to attack Harry in the first place.
- Cornelius Fudge: "Disciplinary hearing of the twelfth of August, into offences committed under the Decree for the Reasonable Restriction of Underage Sorcery and the International Statute of Secrecy by Harry James Potter, resident at number four, Privet Drive, Little Whinging, Surrey. Interrogators: Cornelius Oswald Fudge, Minister for Magic; Amelia Susan Bones, Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement; Dolores Jane Umbridge, Senior Undersecretary to the Minister. Court Scribe, Percy Ignatius Weasley —"
- Albus Dumbledore: "Witness for the defence, Albus Percival Wulfric Brian Dumbledore."
- — Albus Dumbledore's arrival at Harry Potter's hearing in Courtroom Ten[src]
During the hearing, Fudge was incredibly biassed against Harry, in the hopes to discredit and expel the boy for his claims that Voldemort has returned. Fudge introduced highly irrelevant considerations and biassed accusations into the trial, all the while trying to deny Harry a chance to tell his version of what happened. Percy Weasley, the court scribe, was also nodding to Fudge's words and refusing to acknowledge Harry, much to Harry's fury.
The whole hearing was turning out to be nothing but a show trial, until Dumbledore arrived. When Harry finally told the court about the Dementors that attacked him, Fudge scoffed and called Harry's claim "convenient" and a "weak cover story", with no witnesses to back up his claim, as Muggles cannot see Dementors. However, Dumbledore, invoking the Wizengamot Charter of Rights, produced one witness, Arabella Figg, who gave an accurate description of the attack. Fudge tried dismissing her testimony, partly due to her being a Squib, more over why Dementors just happened to be in a Muggle suburb.
Dumbledore tried suggesting that perhaps someone inside or outside the Ministry must have ordered the attack, and expressed his hopes that this matter would not go uninvestigated. As Fudge tried to get the trial back on the subject of the matter, Dumbledore cited Clause Seven of the Decree for the Reasonable Restriction of Underage Sorcery, which was reasonable enough for Harry to defend himself and his cousin. Fudge tried pointing out the other violations of the decree Harry allegedly carried out a few years ago, such as the Hover Charm performed in 1992, and the Engorgement Charm used on his aunt the year after. Dumbledore countered that the former charge was performed by Dobby and that Fudge did not prosecute Harry over the latter charge; he further stated that the Ministry did not have the authority to punish Harry for every bit of magic he had performed, nor use a full criminal trial for a simple case of underage magic, and all of those past charges brought up were irrelevant to the trial. Fudge shamelessly defended his actions by saying that laws could be changed if necessary.
Owing to the fairness of Madam Bones and a majority ruling of the court, Harry was found innocent, with only Fudge, Umbridge, and roughly a half-dozen of the court forechoosing conviction (Percy included, though his vote would not count, being a scribe and therfore not of the Wizengamot). Fudge grudgingly cleared Harry of all charges. Harry soon emptied his entire pouch of Galleons into the Fountain of Magical Brethren in triumph, although the trial did leave him with a bitter resentment for Fudge, Percy, Umbridge, and possibly the remaining wizards and witches who voted against him.
Behind the scenes
- In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Mafalda Hopkirk's letter expelling Harry talked and moved on its own, akin to a Howler, whereas in the book Harry simply reads the letter to himself.
- In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, while Harry and Dudley were being attacked by Dementors, Harry uses Lumos in a hurried attempt to find his wand in the darkness. Though this is also magic, it was not mentioned at the hearing. It is possible, however, that they were including this when they said underage magic.
- There are some markworthy differences of the hearing in the film than in the book:
- Mention of Mrs Figg being a Squib is omitted.
- Mrs Figg stays during the entire hearing and is even there while the Wizengamot votes to decide if Harry is guilty or innocent (she even goes on to raise her hand when Madam Bones asks all those in favour of clearing the accused of all charges, but then realises she cannot vote and pretends to have risen her hand to scratch her ear instead).
- Fudge announcing Harry's previous magic acts are omitted.
- There is only one chair during the hearing rather than two. Harry sits on it, then Mrs Figg takes his spot while Harry sits in the stands.