Gellert Grindelwald (c. 1882-1998) was considered one of the most powerful Dark Wizards of all time, second only to Tom Marvolo Riddle, who later became known as Lord Voldemort. He was schooled at Durmstrang Institute until his expulsion. Later he fostered a friendship with Albus Dumbledore while living in Godric's Hollow for a summer with his great-aunt, Bathilda Bagshot. The two made plans to find the Deathly Hallows and wield their new-found power as Masters of Death, leading a Wizarding revolution with the aim of ending the International Statute of Secrecy and creating a benevolent global order led by wise and powerful witches and wizards. Their partnership fell apart after the two were involved in a three-way duel with Aberforth Dumbledore that resulted in Ariana Dumbledore's death.
Grindelwald left Britain and soon stole the Elder Wand, proceeding alone with the revolution he and Dumbledore had planned. He established a power base in continental Europe at the fortress Nurmengard. Grindelwald was a complex figure, highly idealistic but marred by sociopathic tendencies and his links with the Dark Arts, a revolutionary operating outside the law. He was not a wanton killer or torturer, but he and his followers (in a single-minded and unpopular quest; one's allies must often be unsavory characters) committed numerous crimes, including several known murders. In 1945, at the height of his power, Dumbledore confronted and defeated him in a legendary duel. Grindelwald was subsequently imprisoned in his own fortress for decades, and was slain there by Voldemort in 1998 when he refused to give up information on the Elder Wand.
- "Educated at Durmstrang, a school famous even then for its unfortunate tolerance of the Dark Arts, Grindelwald showed himself quite as precociously brilliant as Dumbledore. Rather than channel his abilities into the attainment of awards and prizes, however, Gellert Grindelwald devoted himself to other pursuits. At sixteen years old, even Durmstrang felt it could no longer turn a blind eye to the twisted experiments of Gellert Grindelwald and he was expelled."
- —Excerpt from The Life and Lies of Albus Dumbledore describing Grindelwald's school days[src]
Gellert Grindelwald was born around 1882, possibly in Hungary or Central or Eastern Europe. He was educated at the Durmstrang Institute, where he excelled at magic and absorbed much of the strength-obsessed and Darkness-flavoured school culture, but ran afoul of its rigid hierarchies. An extremely talented wizard with an attractive, winsome personality and "merry, wild" disposition, he, like many similar others, felt the pull of the Dark Arts. As a Durmstrang student, he was taught that the Dark Arts are a means to an end, a powerful and mysterious tool for a strong-willed young wizard to use to achieve his ends, as well as not adequately convinced of their tendency to lead down a dark path of moral deterioration. Dumbledore described to Harry that 'twisted experiments' had been the reason for his expulsion from Durmstrang before graduating, but his mischievousness and disdain for rules probably played a role as well in such an authoritarian institution as Durmstrang.
Keenly interested in history, lore, and the power of magical artefacts, he became fascinated with the Deathly Hallows, to the point of appropriating their runic symbol as his own personal emblem and engraving it on the walls of Durmstrang prior to his departure.
Friendship with Dumbledore
- "He didn't like that. Grindelwald didn't like that at all. He got angry. He told me what a stupid little boy I was, trying to stand in the way of him and my brilliant brother... Didn't I understand, my poor sister wouldn't have to be hidden once they'd changed the world, and led the wizards out of hiding, and taught the Muggles their place? And there was an argument... and I pulled my wand, and he pulled out his..."
- —Aberforth Dumbledore to Harry Potter, Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley[src]
After expulsion, Gellert's quest for information about the Hallows led him to Godric's Hollow, England, where Ignotus Peverell, said to have been the first owner of Death's Cloak of Invisibility, had been laid to rest. Conveniently, his great-aunt, acclaimed Wizarding Historian Bathilda Bagshot, lived there and provided a place for him to stay, complete with a treasure trove of books and documents and a minimum of supervision. It was in Godric's Hollow in late 1898 or early 1899 that Grindelwald met and befriended Albus Dumbledore. The two teenagers shared a lot in common: they were intellectuals and class-toppingly talented young wizards who were idealistic and ambitious. (Albus, who felt trapped in a boring town out of familial obligation, gained a glamourous, attractive connection to the excitement of faraway places and things in Gellert. Gellert, an ego case, gained a powerful ally, complete with stimulating conversation, who didn't threaten his sense of control.) Albus fell in love with his handsome and bright friend. This romantic affection was unrequited, but it is clear that the pair were very close and the platonic affection was genuine on both sides. They shaped one another's ideas, powers, as well as destinies from that day forth.
They also shared two preoccupations. The Deathly Hallows held their fascination for many shared reasons, but their most fundamental reasons they didn't quite have in common. Gellert wanted (together with his friend) to acquire all three and weild the power of Master of Death, with the controlling motive common to many sociopaths- no one else can be trusted, the only way to assure things stay good is to take control for oneself, the only way to take control is to be strong. Dumbledore's heart yearned for one Hallow in particular- the Resurrection Stone, which he believed could bring back his deceased parents and other lost loved ones. They also dreamed of overturning the Statute of Secrecy and creating a new order in which wise and powerful wizards and witches were the benevolent overlords of their world, including Muggles. Again, Dumbledore's reasons were subtly different: as a young man, he had witnessed and been powerless to stop a group of Muggle boys tormenting his younger sister, Ariana, to the point that the sweet-natured girl suffered an emotional breakdown and her repressed magic became dangerously unstable. This resulted in his father being sent to Azkaban for taking revenge on the Muggle boys and his mother being killed in one of Ariana's accidents. He wanted power to protect his loved ones (and by extension the whole world) against cruelty and xenophobia like that shown by the Muggles. They coined the phrase that would become Grindelwald's slogan and the justification for his moral indiscretions and atrocities: "For the Greater Good."
The friends' plans to leave Godric's Hollow, acquire power, and begin their revolution turned serious. When Dumbledore's brother Aberforth became aware of this in the summer of 1899, he was disgusted with Albus's ambition and concerned knowing that he and Ariana would need to be brought along, as she would not receive the care and attention she needed to keep her stable. The tense situation boiled over into a confrontation and Grindelwald, enraged, inflicted the Cruciatus Curse on Aberforth. Albus moved to defend his brother, igniting a vicious three-way duel in which Ariana was accidentally killed. Aberforth and Albus were devastated. Presumably Grindelwald was also remorseful, as there is no evidence he was an emotionally cold person. Unwilling to face Albus, he fled the country and received putative blame for Ariana's death, thus confirming his place on the wrong side of the law and touching off his career as a Dark revolutionary, which would last until 1945.
Rise to Dark Power
Grindelwald delved into his research on the Deathly Hallows and uncovered the location of the Elder Wand. Rumours had been circulating that the renowned wandsmith Gregorovitch had the wand and was trying to duplicate its properties. Grindelwald broke into Gregorovitch's workshop, laid in wait for the wandmaker to return, Stunned him, and stole the wand, thereby becoming its new master. He had probably gotten the idea that the old owner of the wand need not be killed in order for it to recognise a new master from Dumbledore, as the prevailing interpretation of the lore at the time was that ownership passed only by murder. 
The extent of Grindelwald's success in his revolutionary endeavours is unclear. He succeeded in creating a fortress, Nurmengard, to serve as his power base, apparently sufficiently impregnible that he was later imprisoned in it, inaccessible to his former supporters and breached only by Voldemort. But there is no evidence he succeeded in toppling any wizarding governments or made much of a dent in the Statute of Secrecy, as it remained stubbornly intact (though Muggle World War II was certainly a sufficiently chaotic and violent time to hide some serious breaches). In what few accounts of Grindelwald's revolution exist, his great power as a wizard is mentioned often, but there is less mention of his crimes. One murder is noted, that of Viktor Krum's grandfather, and presumably there were others, but this lack of details protects Grindelwald's moral ambiguity: he might have been a dark anti-hero whose idealism ("For the Greater Good") was corrupted by battle or a rampaging spree murderer, and was probably neither/somewhere in between.
Fall from power and life imprisonment
- "...while I busied myself with the training of young wizards, Grindelwald was raising an army. They say he feared me, and perhaps he did, but less, I think, than I feared him... It was the truth I feared. You see, I never knew which of us, in that last, horrific fight, had actually cast the curse that killed my sister... I think he knew it, I think he knew what frightened me. I delayed meeting him until finally, it would have been too shameful to resist any longer. People were dying and he seemed unstoppable, and I had to do what I could."
- —Albus Dumbledore[src]
Albus Dumbledore hesitated to confront Grindelwald, despite the belief held by many, including quite possibly both men themselves, that he was the only wizard skillful enough to stop his former friend. His reasons for hesitating may have included residual affection for his ex-flame, residual sympathy for his revolutionary goals, or shame over his role in shaping Grindelwald's revolution, but the reason Dumbledore himself gave Harry was that he was afraid Grindelwald knew better than he did who exactly was responsible for killing Ariana and he didn't want to find out. But Dumbledore, at this point about 63 years old and Head of Transfiguration at Hogwarts, was finally importuned by people who suffered from his former friend's actions to move against him. Eye-witnesses stated that it was the greatest duel ever fought between wizards. Dumbledore bested Grindelwald, becoming the master of the Elder Wand and sending his defeated foe back to his homeland, where he was tried. He was convicted and imprisoned in the topmost cell of Nurmengard, where he spent the rest of his life until his murder by Voldemort.
Fifty-three years after his defeat, Grindelwald was slain in his prison cell by Voldemort, who was searching for the Elder Wand for himself. It was only during the confrontation in Grindelwald's cell that Voldemort learned Albus Dumbledore had claimed the wand long ago. Grindelwald showed no fear during this confrontation, taunting Voldemort by name and laughing at his desire for the wand. Voldemort ended Grindelwald's life with the Killing Curse in the spring of 1998.
Near the end of his life, when Voldemort found him at the top of Nurmengard, Grindelwald had been emaciated, his body becoming a frail skeletal figure, his skull-like face with great sunken eyes and wrinkled cheeks, and most of his teeth were gone.
Personality and traits
- Harry Potter: "Grindelwald tried to stop Voldemort going after the wand. He lied, you know, pretended he had never had it."
- Albus Dumbledore: "They say he showed remorse in later years, alone in his cell at Nurmengard. I hope that is true. I would like to think that he did feel the horror and shame of what he had done. Perhaps that lie to Voldemort was his attempt to make amends . . . to prevent Voldemort from taking the Hallow . . ."
- Harry Potter: ". . .or maybe from breaking into your tomb?"
- — Harry Potter and Albus Dumbledore discussing Grindelwald after his death[src]
Grindelwald was charming and brilliant as a young wizard. His attraction to the Dark Arts, noted previously, was predictable given his personality and background, and not necessary malevolent in its initial stages. He was highly intelligent, magically talented, idealistic, as well as ambitious to the point of ruthlessness, with a vicious temper: for example, when Aberforth Dumbledore challenged his and Albus's plans and tried to convince his brother to abandon them, Grindelwald "lost control" and used the Cruciatus Curse on Aberforth. Some considered Grindelwald the most powerful Dark Wizard in history, aside from Lord Voldemort. Of course, history is very long indeed, and the most recent parts are often best remembered.
Grindelwald was highly self-centred, but able to recognize talent in others and form close human connections. In comparison to the "stupid" evil exhibited by some beings such as trolls, the "officious" evil exhibited by the likes of Dolores Umbridge, or the "chaotic", "narcissistic" evil characteristic of Voldemort, Grindelwald is probably best understood in terms of sociopathy. Like many sociopaths before and since, his idealism was genuine and he was capable of real human connection and feelings, but he was filled with intrinsic manipulative traits and the willingness to use them for his own purposes, as well as a malleable moral compass and a tendency to become dangerous when indulged with power. 
There is evidence that Grindelwald regained some perspective after his downfall. He held Voldemort in complete contempt, considering him a powerful idiot who understood nothing of importance. He also apparently lost his will to live in his long confinement. When, trapped and unarmed, Grindelwald faced certain death at the hands of the only Dark Wizard to ever be considered more dangerous than himself, he was openly defiant and even mocking, goading Voldemort into killing him. Indeed, he seemed to exhibit a grotesque remnant of the "merry, wild" temperament of his youth, as though glad he finally had someone interesting to talk to before his long-awaited death. His last-words dressing-down of Voldemort and rather enthusiastic outlook on "the next great adventure" seems clear in its connection to his old friend, Albus Dumbledore.
Some consider Grindelwald to have been an unambiguously evil Dark Wizard, more or less a Voldemort-before-Voldemort. But there are three pieces of evidence to the contrary. First, Dumbledore's famed judgment of character may not have been fully formed as a young man (perhaps his ability to sniff out people who would go bad in a big way if only given the tools was partly formed by his experience with Gellert), but most personality traits are stable throughout the lifetime and presumably Albus would not have found Gellert a worthy companion if there were nothing to him but a selfish quest for power. Second, his decision to stun Gregorovitch, not kill, when he acquired the Elder Wand hints at an idealistic if Machiavellian moral code. Third, part of his motivation for refusing to give Voldemort any information about the Elder Wand may have been a desire to prevent Dumbledore's tomb from being desecrated, or even out of remorse for his own crimes. Alternatively, he may have merely wanted to taunt Voldemort.
Magical abilities and skills
Grindelwald was brilliantly talented while a student and later as an adult. His skills in magic are comparable with Albus Dumbledore and Voldemort. As a former master of the Elder Wand, Grindelwald's magic was further enforced by the artefact's legendary powers.
- Dark Arts: Grindelwald had a talent and passion for the Dark Arts from a young age. In his school days he experimented with Dark Arts on his friends at Durmstrang. His experiments in Dark Arts were almost lethal, even in his youth. As an adult, he nearly perfected almost every aspect of Dark magic which led him on top of the list of The Most Dangerous Dark Wizards of All Time, long before Lord Voldemort appeared. Grindelwald was adept at casting the Cruciatus Curse, and utilised it on at least on one occasion against Aberforth Dumbledore.
- Duelling: Grindelwald was a highly skilled duellist, able to fight with Albus Dumbledore when he was at the height of his power: their duel has entered history as the greatest duel ever fought between two wizards. He was also able to quickly stun Gregorovitch in order to master the Elder Wand. He defeated and killed many powerful witches and wizards in duels during his reign of terror in Europe. However, Grindelwald was ultimately unable to defeat Albus despite the fact that he was wielding the Elder Wand at the time. Albus described himself as "a shade more skilful" than Grindelwald.
- Knowledge of Wandlore: Grindelwald was aware that to take control of the Elder Wand he needed to not just steal the wand, but defeat the previous owner.
- Invisibility: Albus Dumbledore said that Grindelwald could make himself invisible without the use of an invisibility cloak: to achieve such a state, Grindelwald would have used an extremely powerful Disillusionment Charm.
- Occlumency: Grindelwald was an extremely accomplished Occlumens, as even Voldemort, who has gained the reputation to be the most accomplished Legilimens alive, was unable to penetrate his mind to gain information for the search of the Elder Wand.
- Necromancy (possibly): Grindelwald hoped to use the Resurrection Stone to create an army of Inferi. Though he never acquired the stone it's possible that he still managed to summon them through other methods.
- "Did I know, in my heart of hearts, what Gellert Grindelwald was? I think I did, but I closed my eyes."
- —Albus Dumbledore to Harry Potter, about his friendship with Gellert Grindelwald[src]
Albus Dumbledore first met Grindelwald when he was seventeen. They were introduced by Grindelwald's great aunt, Bathilda Bagshot. They got along almost instantly, according to Bagshot. They had much in common, including the quest for the Deathly Hallows and edgy ideals about the structure of a wizard-led society. Dumbledore's romantic feelings towards Grindelwald went unrequited and indeed probably unrevealed, given the culture of the early 20th century, but their friendship was very close. But Grindelwald was a sociopath, and may have sensed that the depth of his friend's affection for him could be used to monopolise his attention and push his moral envelope. They were very close for two months, making plans to find the Deathly Hallows and lead a wizarding revolution but Albus neglected his younger siblings, Aberforth and Ariana, as a result. When Aberforth confronted the pair over this, Grindelwald lost his temper and attacked Aberforth. Albus rushed forward to defend his brother, and during the duel Ariana was killed. Grindelwald fled, his friendship with Albus over.
Over the next few decades, Grindelwald caused considerable havoc on behalf of his revolution and Dumbledore refused to face him out of fear that Grindelwald knew who had really killed Ariana. Eventually, however, Dumbledore could no longer stand idle with his former friend an increasing source of terror on the continent. In 1945, Grindelwald combated Dumbledore for a second time in a legendary duel, said by eyewitnesses to be the greatest duel ever fought between wizards. Dumbledore won in the end, as well as took possession of the Elder Wand and imprisoned Grindelwald in his own prison Nurmengard.
Many years later, in 1998, Grindelwald refused to give any information to Lord Voldemort about the Elder Wand despite the fact that he was imprisoned, wandless and face-to-face with the only Dark Wizard ever considered more powerful than himself. This seems to indicate that Grindelwald no longer held with the views of those who practised the Dark Arts. It was speculated by Harry Potter that Grindelwald had given his life to prevent Voldemort from desecrating Dumbledore's tomb, perhaps indicating that Grindelwald retained some respect and affection for his old friend.
Aberforth disliked Grindelwald immensely, as he was Albus's friend after Hogwarts. While Aberforth was taking care of Ariana, Albus and Grindelwald were planning to enslave the Muggles. As the two boys were planning to travel around the world, they also planned to take Ariana with them. Aberforth opposed them, telling them that he would be able to take care of Ariana once more. Then Grindelwald became very angry and used the Cruciatus Curse on Aberforth; Albus then defended his brother and the three boys had a duel, in which Ariana was accidentally killed by one of them. Grindelwald escaped and left the country. Aberforth retained bitter memories towards Grindelwald for many years after their fateful encounter, and when he recounted the events that led to his sister's death Harry noted the "positively dangerous" look that came over his face when Grindelwald's name was mentioned.
- Gellert is the Hungarian version of Gerard, which comes from the Germanic ger, "spear", as well as hard, "brave, hardy". Saint Gellert was an Italian-born missionary and martyr who worked in Hungary.
- Gellért Hill is a high hill overlooking the Danube in Budapest, Hungary. Gellért Hill was named after Saint Gerard who was thrown to death from the hill. The famous Hotel Gellért and the Gellért Baths can be found in Gellért Square at the foot of the hill. The Gellért Hill Cave is located within the hill, facing toward Hotel Gellért and the Danube River.
- Grindel is old German for "bolt," and is also similar to the mythic monster Grendel who was defeated by Beowulf. Wald is German for "forest". Grindelwald is also the name of a ski resort in Switzerland.
- It is of interesting but purely speculative note that the name Gellert is very close to the name Gelert, the name of a legendary dog of cultural, but little historical, significance to Northern Wales. According to local mythology, Gelert was the most faithful companion of Prince Llewelyn, mistaken for the assailant of the prince's infant heir. His "grave" is a site in Beddgelert (literally Gelert's Grave), Gwynedd, as well as the legend is popular in the area.
- In German, wald is "forest." Grind is a scab, as in the hardened covering over a scar, could also be grinsen, a grin or big smile. The words grindel or grendel appeared in early versions of several Germanic languages, including English. Grindan in Old English meant "to grind," and further "destroyer," someone who grinds up others. In Middle English, grindel meant "angry." In Old Norse, grindill was taken from "storm," and also meant "to bellow," or produce a loud, frightening yell. In Danish legend, the Grendel was a fearsome, murderous monster of humanoid form. He was later defeated by the Scandinavian hero Beowulf in the medieval story of the same name.
Behind the scenes
- In a 2005 interview around the same time Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published, Rowling stated that it was not a coincidence that he was defeated in 1945, hinting at a connection with Adolf Hitler and at least the European front of World War II. Grindelwald seems to be the wizarding version of Adolf Hitler. As referenced by Rowling, the date of Grindelwald's duel with Dumbledore coincides with the downfall of Nazi Germany. There are other similarities as well. Grindelwald adopted an ancient symbol as his sigil (the symbol of the Deathly Hallows) just as the Nazis adopted the manji, switching its facing to create the swastika, itself an ancient symbol. Furthermore, the prison Nurmengard shares a similar name to the Franconian city of Nuremberg, where war criminal trials of former Nazis were held. Nurmengard's dual role as prison to both the victims and later the perpetrator may be a reference to Nuremberg's dual significance in World War II, which, aside from being the site of the Nuremberg Trials, was also the site of the proposal and adoption of the Nuremberg Laws, infamous discriminatory laws against Jewish people. Nurmengard also bears a sign that reads "For the Greater Good", which may correspond to the infamous "Arbeit Macht Frei" sign (German for "Work Makes [One] Free") which hung above the entrance to Auschwitz. Grindelwald's eventual sole imprisonment in his own prison is possibly a reference to the fate of Rudolf Hess, who from 1966 until his death in 1987 was the sole prisoner of Spandau prison. But the reader should beware imagining too close of a connection, as JK Rowling probably used Muggle history as a jumping off point for her imagined Wizarding history but didn't intend to create a deep, multi-layered metaphor but instead go in her own direction.
- Voldemort himself is more similar to Hitler in terms of the extremes he was willing to go to.
- It was revealed by J. K. Rowling during a tour in 2007 that Albus Dumbledore was homosexual, as well as harboured romantic feelings for Grindelwald. Although she did not initially comment on Grindelwald's sexuality, Rowling later clarified that although Grindelwald was aware of Dumbledore's feelings, he merely used them to manipulate the other boy and did not reciprocate romantically.
- Despite being expelled from school, Grindelwald never had his wand confiscated and destroyed, as he had it with him when planning for the revolution and attacking Gregorovitch for the Elder Wand, although he might have simply found another wand as replacement.
- In a 2005 interview around the same time Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published, Rowling stated that Grindelwald was dead. However, it was revealed in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows that he was still alive and imprisoned in Nurmengard. This would indicate that Grindelwald's inclusion in the novel was a late decision.
- British actor Jamie Campbell Bower portrays the young Gellert Grindelwald in the film adaptations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows , whereas Michael Byrne portrays the character as an old man.
- In the film adaptation of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Grindelwald's historical significance is not explained in the slightest. Also, it appears that Voldemort doesn't kill Grindelwald, but simply leaves the prison room. It isn't made crystal clear whether he killed him or not in the film.
- It is unknown as to why Grindelwald is considered less of a Dark Lord than Voldemort as Voldemort himself is only known to terrorize Britain while Grindelwald terrorized all of Europe (in reality, the extent of Grindelwald's success and crimes is not made clear in the books, probably it was not greater than Voldemort's). One possibility is that his lower position is strictly in Britain's viewpoint, or simply because Voldemort's campaign of darkness is more recent and so is more heavily etched in the public memory. It could also be due to their differing goals: Grindelwald merely wanted to dominate and rule Muggles, whereas Voldemort wished to kill them outright, along with anyone he considered not of pure blood.
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Mentioned on a Famous Wizard Card)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) (Name seen on Chocolate Frog Cards) (Mentioned in deleted scene)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game) (Mentioned on a Famous Wizard Card)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game) (Mentioned on a Famous Wizard Card)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (First appearance) (Appears in photographs) (Appears in vision(s))
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (Appears in photographs) (Appears in vision(s))
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game) (Appears in vision(s))
- LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7 
- Pottermore (Mentioned on a Famous Wizard Card)
Notes and references
- ↑ Based on the fact that Durmstrang does not admit Muggle-born students, as well as that he has a witch for a great aunt.
- ↑ It is most likely that he owned another wand before the Elder Wand.
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, letter from Albus to Gellert, Ch. 18.
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Ch. 24
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Ch. 35.
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Ch. 23
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Ch. 14
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Ch. 18
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Daily News"
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Ch. 28
- ↑ Behind the Name: Gellert
- ↑ "The Leaky Cauldron and Mugglenet interview Joanne Kathleen Rowling: Part Three," The Leaky Cauldron, 16 July 2005
- ↑ "Is Dumbledore Gay? Depends on Definitions of ‘Is’ and ‘Gay’"
- ↑ "The Leaky Cauldron and Mugglenet interview Joanne Kathleen Rowling: Part Three," The Leaky Cauldron, 16 July 2005
- ↑ Jamie's a bachelor of (dark) arts
- ↑ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0926084/fullcredits#cast
- ↑ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NRScRfkKuXY