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{{Class infobox
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{{Class_infobox
  +
|image=[[File:Subjectsdada.JPG|250px]]
 
|name=Defence Against the Dark Arts
 
|name=Defence Against the Dark Arts
|image= [[File:Subjectsdada.JPG|250px]]
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|professor=*[[Galatea Merrythought]]
|professor=*[[Galatea Merrythought]] (c. [[1890s|1895]]-[[1940s|1945]])
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*[[Quirinus Quirrell]]
*[[Quirinus Quirrell]] ([[1991–1992 school year|1991-92]])
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*[[Gilderoy Lockhart]]
*[[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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*[[Remus Lupin]]
*[[Remus Lupin]] ([[1993–1994 school year|1993-94]])
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*[[Bartemius Crouch Jr.]]
*[[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Barty Crouch Jr.]] (as [[Alastor Moody]]) ([[1994–1995 school year|1994-95]])
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*[[Dolores Umbridge]]
*[[Dolores Umbridge]] ([[1995–1996 school year|1995-96]]).
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*[[Severus Snape]]
*[[Severus Snape]] ([[1996–1997 school year|1996-97]])
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*[[Amycus Carrow]]
*[[Amycus Carrow]] ([[1997–1998 school year|1997-98]]) {{comment|As Dark Arts Professor}}
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*[[Amycus Carrow's successor|Unidentified]]
* Unknown teacher (after war)
 
 
|classroom=*[[Class 31]]
 
|classroom=*[[Class 31]]
 
*[[Class 104]]
 
*[[Class 104]]
 
*[[Classroom 3C]]
 
*[[Classroom 3C]]
*[[Temporary Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom|Temporary classroom]]
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*[[Temporary Defence Against the Dark Arts classroom|Temporary Classroom]]
|required textbooks=*''[[The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection]]'' by [[Quentin Trimble]] ([[1991–1992 school year|1991-92]])
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|required textbooks=*''[[The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection]]'' by [[Quentin Trimble]]
*''[[Break with a Banshee]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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* [[Gilderoy Lockhart's collected works]]
*''[[Gadding with Ghouls]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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**''[[Break with a Banshee]]''
*''[[Holidays with Hags]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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**''[[Gadding with Ghouls]]''
*''[[Travels with Trolls]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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**''[[Holidays with Hags]]''
*''[[Voyages with Vampires]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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**''[[Travels with Trolls]]''
*''[[Wanderings with Werewolves]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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**''[[Voyages with Vampires]]''
*''[[Year with a Yeti]]'' by [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992–1993 school year|1992-93]])
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**''[[Wanderings with Werewolves]]''
*''[[The Essential Defence Against the Dark Arts]]'' by [[Arsenius Jigger]] ([[1993–1994 school year|1993-94]])
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**''[[Year with a Yeti]]''
*''[[The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection]]'' by [[Quentin Trimble]] ([[1994–1995 school year|1994-95]])
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*''[[Defensive Magical Theory]]'' by [[Wilbert Slinkhard]]
*''[[Defensive Magical Theory]]'' by [[Wilbert Slinkhard]] ([[1995–1996 school year|1995-96]])
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*''[[Dark Arts Defence: Basics for Beginners]]''
*''[[Dark Arts Defence: Basics for Beginners]]'' by the [[British Ministry of Magic|Ministry of Magic]] ([[1995–1996 school year|1995-96]])
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*''[[Confronting the Faceless]]''
*''[[Confronting the Faceless]]'' ([[1996–1997 school year|1996-97]])
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*''[[The Standard Book of Spells]]'' by [[Miranda Goshawk]]<ref name="PS5"/>
|required equipment=*[[Wand]] (except during Dolores Umbridge's tenure as they only needed their books, parchment and quills)
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|required equipment=*[[Wand]]
*Books
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*[[List of books|Books]]
*Parchment
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*[[Parchment]]
*Quill
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*[[Quill]]
|first=''[[Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone]]''
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}}{{Quote|Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom. No cursing allowed.|Notice outside the [[Temporary Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom|classroom]].|Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)}}
|latest=''[[Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows]]'' {{mention}}
 
|last=
 
}}
 
{{Quote|Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom. No cursing allowed.|Notice outside the [[Temporary Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom|classroom]].|Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (video game)}}
 
'''Defence Against the Dark Arts''' (aka '''D.A.D.A.''') is a core class taught at [[Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry]] that teaches its students how to magically defend themselves against [[dark magic]].
 
   
==Class Information==
+
'''Defence Against the Dark Arts''' (sometimes written as '''DADA''') is a core class and subject taught at [[Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry]], in which [[Wizardkind|students]] learn how to [[magic]]ally defend themselves against [[Dark magic|Dark Creatures]], [[Dark Arts]], and other dark [[charms]]. Offensive magic is also taught in this class, such as how to duel, which requires the use of both offensive and defensive magic.
D.A.D.A. broadly focuses on preparing the student so that they may be able to&mdash;if such need arises&mdash;magically defend themselves against things pertaining to the [[Dark Arts]]. This may include: Learning how to block unfriendly spells; and learning how to defeat dark, magical beasts (like the Boggart). However, as D.A.D.A. teachers came and went at Hogwarts annually it produced inconsistent learning from year to year, as the quality, style of teaching and exact choice of subject matter (depending on what was deemed appropriate) varied widely from teacher to teacher.
 
   
It is taught to Hogwarts students from the [[first year]] to the [[Fifth year|fifth]] as a core class, with the option of [[Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test|N.E.W.T.]] classes in the [[Sixth year|sixth]] and [[seventh year]]s for students who qualify.
+
The position of Defence Against the Dark Arts professor was rumoured to be jinxed, as no teacher was able to hold the post for more than a year. Tom Marvolo Riddle (Lord Voldemort) cursed the position because Dumbledore did not let him take this position.
   
==Defence Against the Dark Arts professors==
+
==Class information==
{{Quote|You see, we have not been able to keep a Defence Against the Dark Arts [[professor]] for more than a year since I refused the post to [[Tom Riddle|Lord Voldemort]].|[[Albus Dumbledore]]|Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince}}
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{{Quote|Your defences... therefore most be as flexible and inventive as the arts you seek to undo.|[[Snape]] during a [[1996]] lesson|Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince}}
   
===[[Galatea Merrythought]]===
+
Defence Against the Dark Arts is a required subject from first year to fifth year. The curriculum of the class varies greatly depending on what the [[professor]] at the time deems appropriate; due to the [[Jinx on the D.A.D.A. position|jinx on the teaching post]] that was present prior to the death of [[Lord Voldemort]], a great many teachers have been appointed.
{{Quote|Defence Against the Dark Arts. It was being taught at the time by an old [[professor]] by the name of [[Galatea Merrythought]], who had been at [[Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry|Hogwarts]] for nearly fifty years.|[[Albus Dumbledore]].|Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince}}
 
Professor Galatea Merrythought was employed over a hundred years ago, possibly by [[Newton Scamander|Headmaster Scamander]], and was given [[Horace Slughorn's second office|an office on the sixth floor]], which she owned for fifty years. It is likely that she taught [[Albus Dumbledore]] and [[Elphias Doge]]. During [[Tom Riddle]]'s sixth year, Galatea decided to retire and left the year after. Riddle attempted to take her place, but [[Armando Dippet|Headmaster Dippet]] refused him the position.
 
   
===[[Quirinus Quirrell]]===
+
[[File:Defence_Against_the_Dark_Arts_lesson.png|thumb|left|240px|[[1994]] Defence Against the Dark Arts lesson]]
[[File:Quirrel DADA.JPG|right|thumb|200px|Professor Quirrell teaching in D.A.D.A. class in [[1991]].]]
 
Quirrell was the [[Muggle Studies]] teacher at Hogwarts. After some time in the position, he travelled throughout Europe for a full term. After his return to the school, he was appointed as D.A.D.A. teacher, receiving little respect from students for his stuttering and jittery behaviour, supposedly from encountering vampires somewhere in Romania. He taught [[first year]]s about the [[Curse of the Bogies]], the [[Knockback Jinx]], and the [[Wand-Lighting Charm]], while he taught [[fifth year]]s about [[Vampire|vampire bats]] and [[iguana]]s. At some-point during the year, Quirrell lectured his first year class about how to cure a werewolf bite. Quirrell was killed at the end of the year after attacking Harry, sustaining excruciating pain while supporting the fragmented soul of Lord Voldemort in his own body. It is shown that Voldemort is the other part of Quirrell's turban.
 
   
===[[Gilderoy Lockhart]]===
+
The lessons generally have a practical approach to them, with many of the teachers (with the exception of [[Dolores Umbridge]]) believing that when it comes to the [[Dark Arts]] a practical approach is the best way, with theoretical assignments given as homework.
{{Dialogue a-b-a-b|Gilderoy Lockhart|Books can be misleading.|Harry Potter|You wrote them!|My dear boy, do use your common sense! My books wouldn't have sold half as well if people didn't think ''I'd'' done all those things.|You're a fraud. You've just been taking credit for what other wizards have done.|Lockhart and Harry Potter|Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film)}}
 
[[File:LockhartPixies.jpg|thumb|left|179px|Gilderoy Lockhart, D.A.D.A. professor from 1992-1993.]]
 
Lockhart's tenure ended when he attempted to attack Harry Potter and [[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]] within a circular chamber at the enterance to the [[Chamber of Secrets]] and was hit by a backfiring [[Memory Charm]] from Ron's malfunctioning wand. Lockhart was admitted to [[St Mungo's Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries]] with amnesia. Lockhart was presumably hired due to his reputation as an author, despite the fact that the more qualified [[Severus Snape]] wanted the position. As Snape was never a candidate in Dumbledore's eyes, Gilderoy got the post. Hagrid showed disdain over the decision, saying that Lockhart only received the position due to his celebrity status, and that he was the only applicant at the time due to the jinxed position making everyone else fear it. Despite his inflated reputation due to having published respected books on Defence Against the Dark Arts, Lockhart was a fraud, and failed to fool the students of Hogwarts for long. By year's end, Lockhart was regarded by the students and teachers largely as a joke, and the majority of the school was elated to see him go. He taught his second year students about the creatures he supposedly defeated, but all he really did was cause pandemonium in his first lecture by releasing [[Pixie|Cornish pixies]], and then reading passages from his books in subsequent classes, and reenacting them like a theatre play, often dragging Harry forward to help out against his will; all this had made them unable to learn anything aside from, as [[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]] puts it, "not to let pixies loose", The class probably did learn a little on Defence Against the Dark Arts as the events in Lockhart's books did happen, just by other witches and wizards, not Lockhart. Most of the classes usually revolved around Gilderoy and Harry, so therefore the class learned a lot about Lockhart.
 
   
===[[Remus Lupin]]===
+
In the fifth year [[Ordinary Wizarding Level]] examinations are taken; as such, students are spent learning new topics and possibly revisiting the past four years of lessons (depending on the teacher). As part of their Defence Against the Dark Arts O.W.L., students must sit a written exam one of the questions asks to describe the five signs of a [[werewolf]] and after sudents must complete a practical exam of; [[counter-jinxes]], [[Defensive charms|defensive spells]], [[Riddikulus]], and the [[Patronus Charm]] (for bonus points).<ref name="OotP31">{{OOTP}} - Chapter 31 (''O.W.L.s'')</ref>
{{Quote|You're the best Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher we've ever had! Don't go!|Harry, pleading with [[Remus Lupin]]|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban}}
 
[[File:Remus Lupin at Defence Against the Dark Arts class.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Remus Lupin as Defence Against the Dark Arts professor in [[1993]].]]
 
Lupin resigned after being revealed as a [[werewolf]] by [[Severus Snape]], out of fears that the students' parents would not accept a werewolf as a Hogwarts teacher. Nevertheless, Lupin was enormously popular with the students and teachers, widely regarded as an effective, competent, and fair instructor and perhaps the best Defence Against the Dark Arts professor, particularly during Harry's school years; Hermione Granger even commented in fifth year that Lupin's exam was the only occasion where she and Harry both took a Defence exam from a teacher who knew what he was doing (exams were cancelled in second year, and Harry was exempt due to his status as a [[Triwizard Champion]] in fourth year). [[Severus Snape]] stood in for Lupin as D.A.D.A. instructor for one of his third year classes when it was full moon, in which most of the students were very unhappy about Snape's strict and unfair methods. Lupin taught the third years about various [[Dark Arts|Dark creatures]]. Possibly Lupin's most significant piece of instruction was in teaching Harry Potter the [[Patronus Charm]]. When Professor McGonagall and Harry had their [[Careers Advice|career advice session]], she would reference Professor Lupin in regards to Harry's marks in Defence Against the Dark Arts.
 
   
===[[Alastor Moody]], [[Polyjuice Potion|impersonated]] by [[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Barty Crouch Jr.]]===
+
To advance to the [[N.E.W.T.]] class a student must first achieve a high O.W.L. score of either '[[Outstanding]]' or '[[Exceeds Expectations]]'; most teachers set the bar at 'Exceeds Expectations'.
[[File:Barty Crouch Jr. impersonated as Alastor Moody at Defence Against the Dark Arts class.jpg|thumb|200px|left|[[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Barty Crouch Jr.]] impersonated [[Alastor Moody]] at D.A.D.A. class in [[1994]].]]
 
[[File:Bartemius_Crouch_Jr.JPG|thumb|100px|Barty Crouch Jr.]]
 
Moody, a retired [[Auror]] with the [[British Ministry of Magic|Ministry of Magic]], was brought out of retirement to replace Lupin at Hogwarts and keep a protective eye on Harry Potter. As an Auror, Moody possessed many special magical devices, including a [[Sneakoscope]], [[Secrecy Sensor]], [[Foe-Glass]], and other Dark detectors. He later turned out to be an impostor; [[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Barty Crouch Jr.]] in disguise; having abducted the real Alastor Moody shortly before the school term began, using [[Polyjuice Potion]] to take on Moody's appearance. Crouch (as Moody) was nonetheless a very effective instructor, teaching the students true defensive skills and actively demonstrating the power of the Dark Arts, although an in-class presentation of the three [[Unforgivable Curses]] early in the year was controversial. After the discovery of Crouch's secret, Moody was released from captivity and returned to retirement; while Barty Crouch Jr, as an escaped prisoner from [[Azkaban]], received the [[Dementor's Kiss]]. Moody was a teacher for the last couple of weeks in the 1994-1995 year. An interesting thing to note about Moody's period as teacher was that he briefly mentioned that he was only hired for the year anyway; whether this was truly the case or whether Crouch was lying at the time is left ambiguous.
 
   
===[[Dolores Umbridge]]===
+
Also, due to the course being directly related to the Dark Arts itself, dark wizards who wish to teach would typically apply for this course, notably being Lord Voldemort and [[Severus Snape]].<ref>{{HBP}}</ref>
[[File:Dolores_Umbridge.JPG|thumb|[[Dolores Umbridge]]]]
 
Umbridge was assigned to the position by the [[British Ministry of Magic|Ministry of Magic]] to act as a means for the Ministry to interfere at the school. She was later named [[Hogwarts High Inquisitor]] and gained an unprecedented control over the students and the teachers. As D.A.D.A. instructor, Umbridge taught only theoretical aspects of defence and topics like conflict avoidance and fleeing, in stark contrast to practical combat and resistance teachings of the previous two D.A.D.A. instructors, and merely by making the students read from their [[Defensive Magical Theory|textbooks]], rather than teaching them herself. This was due to the fear of [[Minister for Magic]] [[Cornelius Fudge]] that Dumbledore was using this subject to train the students to take over the Ministry and Umbridge wanted to put this fear to rest by preventing the students from being trained in combat.
 
   
During Umbridge's tenure, Harry, along with Ron and [[Hermione Granger]], provided clandestine D.A.D.A. instruction for their fellow students, based in part on some of the experiences Harry gained in his conflicts with Voldemort and others. They formed [[Dumbledore's Army]], a secret club dedicated to training interested students in the practical elements of wizarding combat that Umbridge refused to teach; when the organisation was discovered, Umbridge claimed that the spells Harry taught were inappropriate for students due to their age.
+
Between 1957 and 1998, there was a different teacher for every year.
   
[[File:Dolores_Umbridge_as_Defence_Against_the_Dark_Arts_teacher.jpg|thumb|left|250px|[[Dolores Umbridge]] as Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in [[1995]].]]
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==Location and time==
  +
'''Classroom 3C''' is where Defence Against the Dark Arts class is taught. It is located on the third floor. In [[1991]], Professor [[Quirinus Quirrell]] taught in a different classroom because the Third Floor Corridor was out of bounds.
   
Umbridge was known to impose harsh punishments on Harry during her term, such as [[Blood Quill|writing lines in his own blood]] during detention, as a way of forcing Harry to renounce his belief that Voldemort had returned to power. She challenged Dumbledore for his position as [[Headmaster]], due to his support for Harry. Umbridge was removed from Hogwarts after Voldemort and his [[Death Eaters]] [[Battle of the Department of Mysteries|attacked]] Harry and his friends at the Ministry of Magic, which proved that he had returned to power and also proved the need for practical D.A.D.A. instruction for Hogwarts students. Umbridge was removed from Hogwarts immediately after the return of Lord Voldemort was announced by the Ministry.
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===Classroom layout===
  +
An iron chandelier hung from the ceiling, as well as a [[dragon]]'s skeleton. On one end of the classroom stands a projector that is activated by magic. Several desks and tables can be found in the classroom as well as some sets of large windows.
   
[[File:Severus-Snape-severus-snape-1972318-359-481.jpg|thumb|[[Severus Snape]]]]
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===Lesson times===
  +
*[[First year]]
  +
**Monday (second period)
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*[[Second year]]
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**Monday (fourth period)
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**Thursday (first period)
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**Wednesday (fourth period)
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*[[Third year]]
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**Monday (fifth period)
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**Thursday (fourth period)
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**Friday (third period)
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*[[Fourth year]]
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**Thursday (fourth & fifth period)
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*[[Fifth year]]
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**Monday (fifth & sixth period)
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**Friday (sixth period)
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*[[Sixth year]]
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**Monday (morning)
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*[[Seventh year]]
  +
**Unknown
   
===[[Severus Snape]]===
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==[[1991]]-[[1998]] curriculum==
  +
{{Quote|You have had five teachers in this subject so far, I believe. Naturally, these teachers will all have had their own methods and priorities. Given this confusion I am surprised so many of you scraped an O.W.L. in this subject. I shall be even more surprised if all of you manage to keep up with N.E.W.T. work, which will be much more advanced.|Professor Snape on the curriculum's instability.|Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince}}
   
Snape assumed the post of D.A.D.A. instructor, unexpectedly by most of the students because he had wanted the job for at least 5 years and had been refused it repeatedly by Dumbledore, and was replaced as [[Potions master]] by [[Horace Slughorn]]. Snape was assigned the post as Dumbledore finally relented, as there were no other teachers for the post. Little is said about Snape's tenure as D.A.D.A. instructor other than that he seemed to focus on non-verbal spells, defence against creatures and spells used by Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters, and was looking after [[Draco Malfoy]], who was acting enigmatically, for much of the term.
+
[[File:Killing_curse_spider.gif|frame|"''[[Moody]]''" demonstrating the [[Killing Curse]] on a spider]]
   
Snape taught about [[nonverbal spell]]s in his first class with the sixth years, in which only Hermione showed any talent in at that time, though Snape ignored the accomplishment; later, he requested an essay on resisting the [[Imperius Curse]], which he found the class did unsatisfactorily and he had the great displeasure of reading them, then an essay on [[Dementor]]s that he expressed different methods in defending based on Harry's experience, and then having the class read about the [[Cruciatus Curse]].
+
Due to the constant changing of teachers, the curriculum of Defence Against the Dark Arts varies from year to year. Each teacher has his or her own priorities, as well as his or her respective efficiencies proportional to his or her beliefs and methods, such as [[Quirinus Quirrell]] and [[Dolores Umbridge]] believing that theories are enough (which is, in fact, more hindering), while the more effective [[Remus Lupin]], "''[[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Alastor Moody]]''" and [[Severus Snape]] have a more balanced belief in theory and practical defence. [[Gilderoy Lockhart]], fraudulent and incompetent, is one known teacher who taught nothing to the classes of his respective tenure, aside from nonsensical and unrelated materials, considering that he was hired solely for the purpose of ousting him as a fraud to the world.<ref name="pottermorebio">''[[Pottermore]]'' - [http://www.pottermore.com/en/book2/chapter13/moment2/gilderoy-lockhart New from J.K. Rowling: "Gilderoy Lockhart"]</ref> In the [[1997-1998 school year]], the class was changed to [[Dark Arts (class)|Dark Arts]].
   
He also decorated the classroom to fit his own personality: closed windows with candles lighting the room made it dimmer than usual, and adorning gruesome pictures of victims of the Dark Arts, all the while expressing clearly his love for the Dark Arts, despite it being his duty to teach the students to defend against them. Snape and Malfoy eventually fled the school after the [[Battle of the Astronomy Tower]], during which Snape killed Albus Dumbledore. The next year when Voldemort took over the Ministry, Snape was appointed headmaster of the school.
+
During the [[1995-1996 school year]], the [[Minister for Magic]], [[Cornelius Fudge]], had gotten into his head that [[Headmaster]] [[Albus Dumbledore]] was using the students to create a private army of young wizards to overthrow the Ministry. As such, he implanted Umbridge to become the teacher of the Defence Against the Dark Arts classes, which he believed to be the main source of training (e.g. defensive spells) for Dumbledore's would-be soldiers. Umbridge supplied a syllabus based entirely on theories on avoiding conflicts instead of facing them, all of which was simply reading out of the textbook, believing that this would be sufficient in passing the examinations. This misguided belief deprived the students on any useful lessons as even the theories are inaccurate, thus leading to the formation on [[Dumbledore's Army]], which taught more practical defence that students from all grades found more useful. Umbridge would later claim that the spells Harry taught were deemed by the Ministry inappropriate for students at their ages.
   
===[[Amycus Carrow]]===
+
===First year===
[[File:Death Eater-Amycus Carrow-02.jpg|thumb|[[Amycus Carrow]]]]
+
''Dark creatures:''
In September of [[1997]], Carrow became the Defence Against the Dark Arts Professor at Hogwarts, although for that school year it was simply a [[Dark Arts (class)|class teaching the Dark Arts]]. Students were made to practice the [[Cruciatus Curse]] on other students who had received detention, as well as potentially teaching other forms of Dark Arts, such as [[Vincent Crabbe]] learning how to conjure [[Fiendfyre]]. Anyone who refused to practice the Cruciatus Curse on students, as [[Neville Longbottom]] did, were subjected to injurious punishments. Carrow himself, as deputy headmaster, would use the Cruciatus Curse, amongst other torturous methods, to punish students that he saw fit to. He was presumably arrested after Voldemort fell.
+
* Curing [[werewolf]] bites
  +
* [[Gnome]]s
  +
* [[Doxy|Doxies]]
  +
* [[Snail]]s
  +
* [[Imp]]s
  +
* [[Bowtruckle]]s
  +
* [[Ghost]]s
  +
* [[Gargoyle]]s
  +
* [[Hag]]s
  +
* [[Fire Crab]]s
  +
''Spells:''
  +
* [[Curse of the Bogies]] {{c|mentioned}}
  +
* [[Knockback Jinx]]
  +
* [[Vermillious]]
  +
* [[Verdimillious]]
  +
* [[Wand-Lighting Charm]]
   
===[[Amycus Carrow's successor]] and [[Harry Potter]]===
+
===Second year===
After the death of Voldemort, the jinx on the Defence Against the Dark Arts position was lifted, and a permanent professor was hired for the job. They were known to invite [[Harry Potter]], who had previously shown himself to be adept at teaching the subject as the leader of [[Dumbledore's Army]], to occasionally give guest lectures on the subject. Where it is said that the students looked forward to lessons with Harry because they were enjoyable.
+
{{Quote|It is my job to arm you against the foulest creatures known to wizardkind. You may find yourself facing your worst fears in this room. Know only that no harm will befall you whilst I am here. I must ask you not to scream. It might provoke them!|Lockhart introducing Cornish Pixies |Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets}}
  +
''Dark creatures:''
   
==Curriculum==
+
* [[Pixie|Cornish Pixies]] {{c|Experienced first-hand}}
===First Years===
+
* Various creatures, including [[Yeti]]es
The [[Curse of the Bogies]], the knockback jinx, how to treat werewolf bites, ''[[Verdimillious]]''.
+
* [[Fire crab|Fire Crabs ]] {{c|Revision}}
  +
* [[Imp]]s {{c|Revision}}
  +
* [[Gargoyle]]s {{c|Revision}}
  +
''Spells:''
  +
* [[Disarming Charm]]
  +
* [[Tongue-Tying Curse]]
  +
* [[Homorphus Charm ]]
  +
* [[Verdimillious Duo]]
  +
* [[Vermillious Duo]]
  +
* [[Tickling Charm]]
  +
* [[Depulso]]
   
===Second Years===
+
===Third year===
[[Pixie|Cornish Pixies]], how to fight numerous creatures, [[Tongue-Tying Curse]] and [[Disarming Charm]] (in the presentation of Lockhart's [[Duelling Club]]), ''[[Verdimillious Duo]]''
+
{{Quote|[[Professor Lupin]] had complied the most unusual exam any of them had ever taken; a sort of obstacle course outside in the sun|Third year exam in [[1994]]|Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban}}
  +
''Dark Creatures:''
   
===Third Years===
+
* [[Boggart]]s
Dark creatures: [[Boggart]]s, [[Kappa]]s, [[Red Cap]]s, [[Grindylow]]s, [[Werewolf|Werewolves]], [[Vampire]]s, [[Hinkypunk]]s.
+
* [[Grindylow]]s[[File:Werewolf.gif|frame|third year lesson on the werewolf]]
  +
* [[Werewolves]]
  +
* [[Hinkypunk]]s
  +
* [[Kappa]]s
   
===Fourth Years===
+
* [[Red Cap]]s
Curses, with emphasis on the [[Unforgivable Curses]].
+
* [[Vampire]]s
  +
* [[Salamander]]
  +
''Spells:''
  +
* [[Riddikulus]] {{c|Expelling boggarts}}
  +
* [[Seize and Pull Charm]]
  +
* [[Freezing Spell]]
  +
* [[Lumos Duo Charm]]
  +
* [[Patronus Charm]] {{c|taught only to [[Harry Potter]]}}
   
===Fifth Years===
+
===Fourth year===
Defensive theory.
+
{{Quote|When it comes to the [[Dark Arts]], I believe in a practical approach. |[[Barty Crouch Jr]] (disguised as [[Alastor Moody]])|Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire}}
  +
''Dark creatures:''
  +
* [[Erkling]]s
  +
''Spells:''
   
===Sixth Years===
+
* [[Cruciatus Curse]] {{c|witnessed on spider}}
[[Nonverbal spell]]s.
+
* [[Hex-deflection]]
  +
* [[Counter-spell|Counter-curses]]
  +
* [[Imperius Curse]] {{c|witnessed on spider, resisting}}
  +
* [[Killing Curse]] {{c|witnessed on spider}}
  +
* [[Freezing Spell]] {{c|Revision}}
  +
* [[Aqua Eructo]]
  +
  +
===Fifth year===
  +
{{Quote|Your previous instruction in this subject has been, disturbingly, uneven. But you will be pleased to know, from now on, you will be following a carefully structured, Ministry-approved course of defensive magic.|[[Dolores Umbridge]]'s excuse of depriving students of practical defence.|Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)}}
  +
* Conflict avoidance
  +
* [[Counter-jinx]]es {{c|discouraged}}, and [[Defensive Charm]]s {{c|discouraged}}
  +
* Fleeing
  +
* [[Iguana]]s
  +
* [[Vampire bat]]s
  +
* Theory
  +
''Dumbledore Army:''
  +
[[File:Tumblr_n6unbjelLi1r5w42zo4_250.gif|frame|Harry instructs members of the [[Dumbledore's Army|D.A.]] in offensive and defensive magic]]
  +
* [[Stunning Spell]]
  +
* [[Patronus Charm]]
  +
* [[Reductor Curse]]
  +
* [[Diminuendo]]
  +
* [[Tickling Charm]]
  +
* [[Petrificus Totalus]]
  +
* [[Levicorpus]]
  +
* [[Disarming Charm]]
  +
* [[Shield Charm]]
  +
* Other [[jinxes]] and [[Hexes|hexes]]
  +
  +
===Sixth year===
  +
''Dark creatures:''
  +
* [[Dementor]]s
  +
* [[Inferius|Inferi]]
  +
''Spells:''
  +
* [[Nonverbal spell]]s
  +
* [[Spell resistance|Resisting]] the [[Imperius Curse]]
  +
* [[Cruciatus Curse]]
  +
* [[Levicorpus]] {{c|revision}}
  +
* [[Disarming Charm]] {{c|revision}}
  +
* [[Stunning Spell]] {{c|revision}}
  +
  +
==Professors==
  +
* [[Galatea Merrythought]] (c. [[1890s|1895]] - [[1945]])
  +
* [[Quirinus Quirrell]] ([[1991]] - [[1992]])
  +
* [[Gilderoy Lockhart]] ([[1992]] - [[1993]])
  +
* [[Remus Lupin]] ([[1993]] - [[1994]])
  +
* [[Alastor Moody]] (actually [[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Barty Crouch Jr.]] [[Polyjuice Potion|in disguise]]) ([[1994]] - [[1995]])
  +
* [[Dolores Umbridge]] ([[1995]] - [[1996]])
  +
* [[Severus Snape]] ([[1996]] - [[1997]])
  +
* [[Amycus Carrow]] (in practice taught "[[Dark Arts (class)|Dark Arts]]", not defence) ([[1997]] - [[1998]])
  +
* [[Amycus Carrow's successor|Unidentified Professor]] ([[1998]] - Unknown/Incumbent)
  +
<gallery orientation="portrait" widths="100" position="center" captionalign="center" captionsize="small">
  +
Quirinus Quirrell.jpg|[[Quirinus Quirrell]]
  +
Kenneth Branagh as Gilderoy-Lockhart (6).jpg|[[Gilderoy Lockhart]]
  +
1Remus.jpg|[[Remus Lupin]]
  +
Moodydh.jpg|[[Alastor Moody]]
  +
DoloresUmbridge.png|[[Dolores Umbridge]]
  +
SnapeHBP.JPG|[[Severus Snape]]
  +
AmycusCarrow.png|[[Amycus Carrow]]
  +
</gallery>
  +
  +
== Required textbooks==
  +
[[File:The-dark-forces-a-guide-to-self-protection-pottermore.png|thumb|145px|''The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection'' by [[Quentin Trimble]]]]
  +
*First Year & Fourth Year
  +
**''[[The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection]]'' by [[Quentin Trimble]]
  +
*Second Year ([[Gilderoy Lockhart|Gilderoy Lockhart's]] Collected Works)
  +
**''[[Break with a Banshee]]''
  +
**''[[Gadding with Ghouls]]''
  +
**''[[Holiday with Hags]]''
  +
**''[[Travels with Trolls]]''
  +
**''[[Voyages with Vampires]]''
  +
**''[[Wandering with Werewolves]]''
  +
**''[[Year with a Yeti]]''
  +
*Third Year
  +
**''[[The Essential Defence Against the Dark Arts]]'' by [[Arsenius Jigger]]
  +
*Fifth Year
  +
**''[[Defensive Magical Theory]]'' by [[Wilbert Slinkhard]]
  +
**''[[Dark Arts Defence: Basics for Beginners]]''
  +
*Sixth Year
  +
**''[[Confronting the Faceless]]''
  +
  +
==Grades==
  +
===Pass===
  +
*[[Outstanding]] [O]
  +
*[[Exceeds Expectations]] [E]
  +
*[[Acceptable]] [A]
  +
===Fail===
  +
*[[Poor]] [P]
  +
*[[Dreadful]] [D]
  +
*[[Troll]] [T]
   
 
==Known O.W.L.s==
 
==Known O.W.L.s==
[[File:Defence Against the Dark Arts Book.JPG|thumb|200px|Defence Against the Dark Arts book.]]
+
<gallery spacing="small" columns="dynamic" position="center" widths="75" orientation="portrait">
*[[Alastor Moody]] (possibly)
+
PromoHP7 Harry Potter.jpg|[[Harry Potter]]
*[[Anthony Goldstein]]
+
HermioneGranger.jpg|[[Hermione Granger]]
*[[Bartemius Crouch Jr.|Barty Crouch Jr.]]
+
Ron-Weasley-harry-potter-and-the-deathly-hallows.jpg|[[Ron Weasley]]
*[[Bill Weasley]]
+
AnthonyGoldstein.png|[[Anthony Goldstein]]
*[[Dean Thomas]]
+
Barty Crouch, Jr.jpg|[[Barty Crouch Jr.]]
*[[Draco Malfoy]]
+
Bill-Weasley-harry-potter-and-the-deathly-hallows-movies-17182060-1919-2560.jpg|[[Bill Weasley]]
*[[Ernest Macmillan|Ernie Macmillan]]
+
Dean ThomasDH2.jpg|[[Dean Thomas]]
*[[Fay Dunbar]]
+
Draco-Malfoy-promo-draco-and-slytherin-22383964-1919-2560.jpg|[[Draco Malfoy]]
*[[Fred Weasley]]
+
Louis-Doyle-Ernie-Macmillan.jpg|[[Ernie Macmillan]]
*[[George Weasley]]
+
Fredo.jpg|[[Fred Weasley I]]
*[[Hannah Abbott]]
+
PHELPS2.jpg|[[George Weasley]]
*[[Harry Potter]]
+
Hannah Abbott .jpg|[[Hannah Abbott]]
*[[Hermione Granger]]
+
Thebestmainimageofjamespotter.jpg|[[James Potter I]] † {{c|possibly}}
*[[Lavender Brown]]
+
Kingsley7.jpg|[[Kingsley Shacklebolt]]
*[[Lee Jordan]]
+
Lavender-Brown 1997.jpg|[[Lavender Brown]]
*[[Michael Corner]]
+
Leejordan OoTP.PNG|[[Lee Jordan]]
*[[Neville Longbottom]]
+
Mikecorner.JPG|[[Michael Corner]]
*[[Padma Patil]]
+
Neville-promo-pics-neville-longbottom-28261912-390-520.jpg|[[Neville Longbottom]]
*[[Pansy Parkinson]]
+
Nymphadora Tonks Deathly Hallows promotional image.jpg|[[Nymphadora Tonks]]
*[[Parvati Patil]]
+
PadmaPatil.png|[[Padma Patil]]
*[[Percy Weasley]]
+
Pansyinfobox.jpg|[[Pansy Parkinson]]
*[[Quirinus Quirrell]] (possibly)
+
Parvati patil.PNG|[[Parvati Patil]]
*[[Remus Lupin]] (possibly)
+
percy.jpg|[[Percy Weasley]]
*[[Ronald Weasley|Ron Weasley]]
+
SeamusFinnigan.jpg|[[Seamus Finnigan]]
*[[Seamus Finnigan]]
+
SusanBones ootp.PNG|[[Susan Bones]]
*[[Susan Bones]]
+
TerryBoot.PNG|[[Terry Boot]]
*[[Terry Boot]]
+
100px-Alastor Moody Profile.jpg|[[Alastor Moody]]
*[[Tom Riddle]] (possibly)
+
Thomas Marvolo Riddle.jpg|[[Tom Riddle]] † {{c|possibly}}
  +
1Remus.jpg|[[Remus Lupin]] †
  +
</gallery>
  +
*All known Aurors, since it is a compulsory N.E.W.T. level; therefore O.W.L. must have been achieved before that.
  +
  +
==Media==
  +
  +
<gallery widths="200" position="center" spacing="small" captionalign="center" hideaddbutton="true">
  +
File:Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets - Cornish Pixies Attack|Cornish Pixies
  +
File:Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban - Defence against the dark arts|Defence Against the Dark Arts
  +
File:Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire - The unforgivable curses|Lesson on the Unforgivable Curses
  +
</gallery>{{VideoFooter}}
   
 
==Behind the scenes==
 
==Behind the scenes==
*When [[J. K. Rowling]] was asked for the reason Dumbledore would not give Severus Snape the Defence Against the Dark Arts job, the author responded that Dumbledore believed that teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts would bring out Snape's worst side, though Dumbledore finally relented in [[Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince|Harry's sixth year]]. <ref>[http://www.quick-quote-quill.org/articles/2003/0626-alberthall-fry.htm Interview from Quick Quote Quill]</ref>
+
* [[Sixth year]]s are supposed to be given demonstrations on what illegal [[curse]]s look like; it was only in the [[1994-1995 school year]] that this was changed to the [[fourth year]].
*J.K. Rowling has also revealed that after Amycus Carrow was the Dark Arts teacher, a permanent teacher took the post, because Voldemort's curse over the job was lifted.
+
* [[Tom Riddle]] twice applied for the Defence Against the Dark Arts position, the first time shortly after graduation from Hogwarts when he was turned down by [[Headmaster]] [[Armando Dippet]], who claimed he was too young but invited him to re-apply a few years later. Many years later, after becoming steeped in the Dark Arts and starting to use the title "Lord Voldemort", he visited the school and applied again, this time to Dumbledore. He was refused again. According to [[Albus Dumbledore]], after the second refusal, no Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher held the post for more than one school year. Dumbledore believed that this was due to Voldemort placing a [[Jinx on the post of Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher|curse]] on the position, a belief that was popularly spread throughout the school.
*Each Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher attacked (or attempted to attack) Harry. Quirrell tried to strangle Harry and jinxed his broom during a Quidditch game, Lockhart attempted to [[Memory Charm|erase his memories]], Lupin went after him as a [[werewolf]] (although he alone out of all the others would never have attacked Harry had he been in his human form), Barty Crouch Jr. (disguised as Moody) attempted to kill Harry, Umbridge physically assaulted him, and Snape attacked Harry in retaliation for the latter trying to curse him during the [[Battle of the Astronomy Tower]]. Ironically, Amycus Carrow&mdash;who taught Dark Arts instead of Defence Against the Dark Arts&mdash;was attacked ''by'' Harry Potter after the former had insulted [[Minerva McGonagall]].
+
* When [[J. K. Rowling]] was asked for the reason Dumbledore would not give Severus Snape the Defence Against the Dark Arts job, the author responded that Dumbledore believed that teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts would bring out Snape's worst side, though Dumbledore finally relented in [[Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince|Harry's sixth year]].<ref>[http://www.quick-quote-quill.org/articles/2003/0626-alberthall-fry.htm Interview from Quick Quote Quill]</ref> Snape himself admitted to [[Bellatrix Lestrange]] that reason during their conversation in [[Spinner's End]].<ref>{{HBP}} - Chapter 2 (''Spinner's End'')</ref>
*[[Dolores Umbridge]] was the only female Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the series, besides [[Galatea Merrythought]] (the latter of whom was not actually seen throughout the series, only mentioned).
+
* Rowling has also revealed that after Amycus Carrow was the Dark Arts teacher, a permanent teacher took the post because Voldemort's curse over the job was lifted.
*The six D.A.D.A. professors who taught Harry each had a dark secret that he didn't learn until near the end of their respective school years:
+
* Whilst it is known that Dumbledore did not wish Professor [[Snape]] to teach DADA for fear of relapsing into his Death Eater ways, it is also possible that (since the subject had been jinxed) he was also thinking of Snape's physical well-being (not least of all because of how much of importance he could have been, and was, in the long run). Despite Dumbledore's fear, however, Snape did not truly return to his old ways when granted the position he sought for, though he did teach the lessons with a sense of passion for the Dark Arts.
**Quirrell was serving Voldemort and was possessed by him.
+
* Dumbledore hired the incompetent Gilderoy Lockhart as a means to expose him for the credit-stealing fraud he is, believing that a normal school environment would be the best place to achieve that.<ref name="pottermorebio" /> Despite this working out, the year's curriculum was wasted due to Lockhart's ineptitude.
**Lockhart was a cowardly fraud who covertly stole the achievements of others.
+
* Each Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher attacked (or attempted to attack) Harry. Quirrell tried to strangle Harry and jinxed his broom during a Quidditch game, Lockhart attempted to [[Memory Charm|erase his memories]], Lupin went after him as a [[werewolf]] (although he alone out of all the others would never have attacked Harry had he been in his human form), Barty Crouch Jr. (disguised as Moody) attempted to kill him, Umbridge physically assaulted him (and had previously sent Dementors to attack him, though this was before she taught the subject), and Snape attacked Harry in retaliation for the latter trying to curse him during the [[Battle of the Astronomy Tower]]. Ironically, Amycus Carrow, who taught Dark Arts instead of Defence Against the Dark Arts, was attacked ''by'' Harry Potter after the former had insulted [[Minerva McGonagall]].
**Lupin was a werewolf.
+
* [[Dolores Umbridge]] was the only female Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the series besides [[Galatea Merrythought]] (the latter of whom was not actually seen throughout the series, only mentioned).
**Moody was actually Barty Crouch Jr., an escaped Death Eater.
+
* The six professors of this subject who taught Harry each had a dark secret that he didn't learn until near the end of their respective school years:
**Umbridge was the one who sent the Dementors that attacked Harry and Dudley.
+
** Quirrell was serving Voldemort and was possessed by him.
**Snape was the one who had reported the Prophecy to Voldemort, and was the Half-Blood Prince.
+
** Lockhart was a cowardly fraud who covertly stole the achievements of others.
*During his tenure as [[Potions master]], [[Severus Snape]] only accepted students who achieved an [[Outstanding]] on their [[Ordinary Wizarding Level|O.W.L.s]] into his [[Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test|N.E.W.T.]]-level [[Potions (class)|Potions classes]]. However, when Snape became the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the [[1996–1997 school year]], students who only achieved [[Exceeds Expectations]] were still allowed to take the N.E.W.T.-level D.A.D.A classes
+
** Lupin was a werewolf.
*The only book to have twice been assigned for this subject is: ''[[The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection]]''.
+
** Moody was actually Barty Crouch Jr., an escaped Death Eater.
*[[Tom Riddle]] twice applied for the Defence Against the Dark Arts position, the first time shortly after graduation from Hogwarts when he was turned down by [[Headmaster]] [[Armando Dippet]], who claimed he was too young but invited him to re-apply a few years later. Many years later, after becoming steeped in the Dark Arts and starting to use the title "Lord Voldemort", he visited the school and applied again, this time to Dumbledore. He was refused again. According to [[Albus Dumbledore]], after the second refusal, no Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher held the post for more than one school year. Dumbledore believed that this was due to Voldemort placing a [[Jinx on the post of Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher|curse]] on the position.
+
** Umbridge was the one who sent the Dementors that attacked Harry and Dudley.
*Whilst it is known that Dumbledore did not wish Professor [[Snape]] to teach D.A.D.A. for fear of relapsing into his Death Eater ways it is also possible that (since the subject had been jinxed) he was also thinking of Snape's physical well-being (not least of all because of how useful he could have been&mdash;and was&mdash;in the long run).
+
** Snape was the one who had reported the prophecy to Voldemort and was the Half-Blood Prince.
*Most of the D.A.D.A. teachers in Harry's six years at Hogwarts followed a similar pattern: each (with the exception of Quirrell and Snape) was an entirely new teacher, each was chosen out of necessity, due to the loss of the previous instructor and the absence of other applicants, each meets Harry before he arrives at Hogwarts in the respective year (with the exception of [[Alastor Moody|Mad-Eye Moody]], who was only mentioned in passing - although Harry had unknowingly encountered Barty Crouch Jr at the Quidditch World Cup), and each physically (or magically) attacks Harry during school term, either intentionally, or accidentally as in the case of [[Remus Lupin]].
+
* During his tenure as [[Potions master]], [[Severus Snape]] only accepted students who achieved an [[Outstanding]] on their [[Ordinary Wizarding Level|OWLs]] into his [[Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test|NEWT]]-level [[Potions (class)|Potions classes]]. However, when Snape became the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the [[1996–1997 school year]], students who achieved [[Exceeds Expectations]] were still allowed to take the NEWT-level DADA classes.
*In "Order of the Phoenix", when discussing who their new D.A.D.A teacher would be, Harry said that the teachers didn't have much luck as "One sacked, one dead, one lost his memory and one was locked in a trunk for nine months", referring to Lupin, Quirrel, Lockhart and Moody respectively; this isn't true. However, as Lupin wasn't sacked. Rather, he resigned.
+
* The only book to have twice been assigned for this subject is ''[[The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection]]''.
  +
* Most of the Defence Against the Dark Arts teachers in Harry's six years at Hogwarts followed a similar pattern: each (with the exception of Quirrell and Snape) was an entirely new teacher; each was chosen out of necessity, due to the loss of the previous instructor and the absence of other applicants; each meets Harry before he arrives at Hogwarts in the respective year (with the exception of [[Alastor Moody|Mad-Eye Moody]], who was only mentioned in passing, although Harry had unknowingly encountered Barty Crouch Jr at the Quidditch World Cup); and each physically (or magically) attacks Harry during school term, either intentionally or accidentally, as in the case of [[Remus Lupin]].
  +
* In ''Order of the Phoenix'', when discussing who their new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher would be, Harry said that the teachers didn't have much luck: "One sacked, one dead, one lost his memory and one was locked in a trunk for nine months," referring to Lupin, Quirrel, Lockhart, and Moody, respectively; this isn't true, however, because Lupin resigned rather than was fired. Also, Crouch Jr., the ''de facto'' teacher for Harry's fourth year, suffered the [[Dementor's Kiss]].
  +
* [[Vincent Crabbe]] and [[Gregory Goyle]] are two known students who failed their O.W.L.s in Defence Against the Dark Arts, for which the following year's respective teacher, Snape, gave them both detentions.
   
 
==Appearances==
 
==Appearances==

Latest revision as of 10:54, December 13, 2014

"Defence Against the Dark Arts Classroom. No cursing allowed."
—Notice outside the classroom.[src]

Defence Against the Dark Arts (sometimes written as DADA) is a core class and subject taught at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, in which students learn how to magically defend themselves against Dark CreaturesDark Arts, and other dark charms. Offensive magic is also taught in this class, such as how to duel, which requires the use of both offensive and defensive magic.

The position of Defence Against the Dark Arts professor was rumoured to be jinxed, as no teacher was able to hold the post for more than a year. Tom Marvolo Riddle (Lord Voldemort) cursed the position because Dumbledore did not let him take this position.

Class informationEdit

"Your defences... therefore most be as flexible and inventive as the arts you seek to undo."
Snape during a 1996 lesson[src]

Defence Against the Dark Arts is a required subject from first year to fifth year. The curriculum of the class varies greatly depending on what the professor at the time deems appropriate; due to the jinx on the teaching post that was present prior to the death of Lord Voldemort, a great many teachers have been appointed.

Defence Against the Dark Arts lesson

1994 Defence Against the Dark Arts lesson

The lessons generally have a practical approach to them, with many of the teachers (with the exception of Dolores Umbridge) believing that when it comes to the Dark Arts a practical approach is the best way, with theoretical assignments given as homework.

In the fifth year Ordinary Wizarding Level examinations are taken; as such, students are spent learning new topics and possibly revisiting the past four years of lessons (depending on the teacher). As part of their Defence Against the Dark Arts O.W.L., students must sit a written exam one of the questions asks to describe the five signs of a werewolf and after sudents must complete a practical exam of; counter-jinxes, defensive spells, Riddikulus, and the Patronus Charm (for bonus points).[2]

To advance to the N.E.W.T. class a student must first achieve a high O.W.L. score of either 'Outstanding' or 'Exceeds Expectations'; most teachers set the bar at 'Exceeds Expectations'.

Also, due to the course being directly related to the Dark Arts itself, dark wizards who wish to teach would typically apply for this course, notably being Lord Voldemort and Severus Snape.[3]

Between 1957 and 1998, there was a different teacher for every year.

Location and timeEdit

Classroom 3C is where Defence Against the Dark Arts class is taught. It is located on the third floor. In 1991, Professor Quirinus Quirrell taught in a different classroom because the Third Floor Corridor was out of bounds.

Classroom layoutEdit

An iron chandelier hung from the ceiling, as well as a dragon's skeleton. On one end of the classroom stands a projector that is activated by magic. Several desks and tables can be found in the classroom as well as some sets of large windows.

Lesson timesEdit

1991-1998 curriculumEdit

"You have had five teachers in this subject so far, I believe. Naturally, these teachers will all have had their own methods and priorities. Given this confusion I am surprised so many of you scraped an O.W.L. in this subject. I shall be even more surprised if all of you manage to keep up with N.E.W.T. work, which will be much more advanced."
—Professor Snape on the curriculum's instability.[src]
Killing curse spider

"Moody" demonstrating the Killing Curse on a spider

Due to the constant changing of teachers, the curriculum of Defence Against the Dark Arts varies from year to year. Each teacher has his or her own priorities, as well as his or her respective efficiencies proportional to his or her beliefs and methods, such as Quirinus Quirrell and Dolores Umbridge believing that theories are enough (which is, in fact, more hindering), while the more effective Remus Lupin, "Alastor Moody" and Severus Snape have a more balanced belief in theory and practical defence. Gilderoy Lockhart, fraudulent and incompetent, is one known teacher who taught nothing to the classes of his respective tenure, aside from nonsensical and unrelated materials, considering that he was hired solely for the purpose of ousting him as a fraud to the world.[4] In the 1997-1998 school year, the class was changed to Dark Arts.

During the 1995-1996 school year, the Minister for Magic, Cornelius Fudge, had gotten into his head that Headmaster Albus Dumbledore was using the students to create a private army of young wizards to overthrow the Ministry. As such, he implanted Umbridge to become the teacher of the Defence Against the Dark Arts classes, which he believed to be the main source of training (e.g. defensive spells) for Dumbledore's would-be soldiers. Umbridge supplied a syllabus based entirely on theories on avoiding conflicts instead of facing them, all of which was simply reading out of the textbook, believing that this would be sufficient in passing the examinations. This misguided belief deprived the students on any useful lessons as even the theories are inaccurate, thus leading to the formation on Dumbledore's Army, which taught more practical defence that students from all grades found more useful. Umbridge would later claim that the spells Harry taught were deemed by the Ministry inappropriate for students at their ages.

First yearEdit

Dark creatures:

Spells:

Second yearEdit

"It is my job to arm you against the foulest creatures known to wizardkind. You may find yourself facing your worst fears in this room. Know only that no harm will befall you whilst I am here. I must ask you not to scream. It might provoke them!"
—Lockhart introducing Cornish Pixies [src]

Dark creatures:

Spells:

Third yearEdit

"Professor Lupin had complied the most unusual exam any of them had ever taken; a sort of obstacle course outside in the sun"
—Third year exam in 1994[src]

Dark Creatures:

Spells:

Fourth yearEdit

"When it comes to the Dark Arts, I believe in a practical approach. "
Barty Crouch Jr (disguised as Alastor Moody)[src]

Dark creatures:

Spells:

Fifth yearEdit

"Your previous instruction in this subject has been, disturbingly, uneven. But you will be pleased to know, from now on, you will be following a carefully structured, Ministry-approved course of defensive magic."
Dolores Umbridge's excuse of depriving students of practical defence.[src]

Dumbledore Army:

Tumblr n6unbjelLi1r5w42zo4 250

Harry instructs members of the D.A. in offensive and defensive magic

Sixth yearEdit

Dark creatures:

Spells:

ProfessorsEdit

Required textbooksEdit

The-dark-forces-a-guide-to-self-protection-pottermore

The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection by Quentin Trimble

GradesEdit

PassEdit

FailEdit

Known O.W.L.sEdit

  • All known Aurors, since it is a compulsory N.E.W.T. level; therefore O.W.L. must have been achieved before that.

MediaEdit

Videoswiki For more Harry Potter videos check out Wikia's video library

Behind the scenesEdit

  • Sixth years are supposed to be given demonstrations on what illegal curses look like; it was only in the 1994-1995 school year that this was changed to the fourth year.
  • Tom Riddle twice applied for the Defence Against the Dark Arts position, the first time shortly after graduation from Hogwarts when he was turned down by Headmaster Armando Dippet, who claimed he was too young but invited him to re-apply a few years later. Many years later, after becoming steeped in the Dark Arts and starting to use the title "Lord Voldemort", he visited the school and applied again, this time to Dumbledore. He was refused again. According to Albus Dumbledore, after the second refusal, no Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher held the post for more than one school year. Dumbledore believed that this was due to Voldemort placing a curse on the position, a belief that was popularly spread throughout the school.
  • When J. K. Rowling was asked for the reason Dumbledore would not give Severus Snape the Defence Against the Dark Arts job, the author responded that Dumbledore believed that teaching Defence Against the Dark Arts would bring out Snape's worst side, though Dumbledore finally relented in Harry's sixth year.[5] Snape himself admitted to Bellatrix Lestrange that reason during their conversation in Spinner's End.[6]
  • Rowling has also revealed that after Amycus Carrow was the Dark Arts teacher, a permanent teacher took the post because Voldemort's curse over the job was lifted.
  • Whilst it is known that Dumbledore did not wish Professor Snape to teach DADA for fear of relapsing into his Death Eater ways, it is also possible that (since the subject had been jinxed) he was also thinking of Snape's physical well-being (not least of all because of how much of importance he could have been, and was, in the long run). Despite Dumbledore's fear, however, Snape did not truly return to his old ways when granted the position he sought for, though he did teach the lessons with a sense of passion for the Dark Arts.
  • Dumbledore hired the incompetent Gilderoy Lockhart as a means to expose him for the credit-stealing fraud he is, believing that a normal school environment would be the best place to achieve that.[4] Despite this working out, the year's curriculum was wasted due to Lockhart's ineptitude.
  • Each Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher attacked (or attempted to attack) Harry. Quirrell tried to strangle Harry and jinxed his broom during a Quidditch game, Lockhart attempted to erase his memories, Lupin went after him as a werewolf (although he alone out of all the others would never have attacked Harry had he been in his human form), Barty Crouch Jr. (disguised as Moody) attempted to kill him, Umbridge physically assaulted him (and had previously sent Dementors to attack him, though this was before she taught the subject), and Snape attacked Harry in retaliation for the latter trying to curse him during the Battle of the Astronomy Tower. Ironically, Amycus Carrow, who taught Dark Arts instead of Defence Against the Dark Arts, was attacked by Harry Potter after the former had insulted Minerva McGonagall.
  • Dolores Umbridge was the only female Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the series besides Galatea Merrythought (the latter of whom was not actually seen throughout the series, only mentioned).
  • The six professors of this subject who taught Harry each had a dark secret that he didn't learn until near the end of their respective school years:
    • Quirrell was serving Voldemort and was possessed by him.
    • Lockhart was a cowardly fraud who covertly stole the achievements of others.
    • Lupin was a werewolf.
    • Moody was actually Barty Crouch Jr., an escaped Death Eater.
    • Umbridge was the one who sent the Dementors that attacked Harry and Dudley.
    • Snape was the one who had reported the prophecy to Voldemort and was the Half-Blood Prince.
  • During his tenure as Potions master, Severus Snape only accepted students who achieved an Outstanding on their OWLs into his NEWT-level Potions classes. However, when Snape became the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher in the 1996–1997 school year, students who achieved Exceeds Expectations were still allowed to take the NEWT-level DADA classes.
  • The only book to have twice been assigned for this subject is The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection.
  • Most of the Defence Against the Dark Arts teachers in Harry's six years at Hogwarts followed a similar pattern: each (with the exception of Quirrell and Snape) was an entirely new teacher; each was chosen out of necessity, due to the loss of the previous instructor and the absence of other applicants; each meets Harry before he arrives at Hogwarts in the respective year (with the exception of Mad-Eye Moody, who was only mentioned in passing, although Harry had unknowingly encountered Barty Crouch Jr at the Quidditch World Cup); and each physically (or magically) attacks Harry during school term, either intentionally or accidentally, as in the case of Remus Lupin.
  • In Order of the Phoenix, when discussing who their new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher would be, Harry said that the teachers didn't have much luck: "One sacked, one dead, one lost his memory and one was locked in a trunk for nine months," referring to Lupin, Quirrel, Lockhart, and Moody, respectively; this isn't true, however, because Lupin resigned rather than was fired. Also, Crouch Jr., the de facto teacher for Harry's fourth year, suffered the Dementor's Kiss.
  • Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle are two known students who failed their O.W.L.s in Defence Against the Dark Arts, for which the following year's respective teacher, Snape, gave them both detentions.

AppearancesEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. Errore nella funzione Cite: Marcatore <ref> non valido; non è stato indicato alcun testo per il marcatore PS5
  2. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix - Chapter 31 (O.W.L.s)
  3. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
  4. 4.0 4.1 Pottermore - New from J.K. Rowling: "Gilderoy Lockhart"
  5. Interview from Quick Quote Quill
  6. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince - Chapter 2 (Spinner's End)


Defence Against the Dark Arts (D.A.D.A.)
TDF-AGTS-P
Professors: Galatea Merrythought · Quirinus Quirrell · Gilderoy Lockhart · Remus Lupin · Barty Crouch Jr. (as Alastor Moody) · Dolores Umbridge · Severus Snape ·
Amycus Carrow (as Dark Arts teacher)
Textbooks: The Dark Forces: A Guide to Self-Protection · Break with a Banshee · Gadding with Ghouls · Holidays with Hags · Travels with Trolls ·
Voyages with Vampires · Wanderings with Werewolves · Year with the Yeti · The Essential Defence Against the Dark Arts · Defensive Magical Theory · Dark Arts Defence: Basics for Beginners · Confronting the Faceless · Magical Drafts and Potions
D.A.D.A. at Hogwarts: Classroom 3C · Temporary Classroom · Hogwarts Turris Magnus · Professor's Office · Storeroom · Staircase · Lesson Cup · Race Cup · Dumbledore's Army
Spells covered under the subject: Curse of the Bogies · Knockback Jinx · Verdimillious Charm · Verdimillious Duo Spell · Verdimillious Tria · Wand-Lighting Charm · Freezing Spell · Seize and Pull Charm · Patronus Charm · Killing Curse · Cruciatus Curse · Imperius Curse · Impediment Jinx · Reductor Curse · Stunning Spell · Shield Charm · Nonverbal spells · Hex-deflection ·
Hex-Breaker · Hex Zapper
Creatures covered under the subject: Vampire bats · Iguanas · Cornish Pixies · Werewolves · Vampires · Hinkypunks · Boggarts · Red Caps · Kappas · Grindylows · Inferius


Wizarding Education
Beauxcrest Hogwarts shield DurmstrangCrest
Schools: Beauxbatons Academy of Magic · Brazilian wizarding school · Durmstrang Institute · Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry · Koldovstoretz · Mahoutokoro School of Magic · Salem Witches' Institute (possibly) · Uagadou School of Magic
Specialised schools: Academy of Broom Flying · Charm School · Euro-Glyph School of Extraordinary Languages · Merge School of Under-Water Spellage · Wizarding Academy of Dramatic Arts
Examinations: First year exams · Second year exams · Third year exams · Fourth year exams · Ordinary Wizarding Level · Nastily Exhausting Wizarding Test
Core classes: Astronomy · Charms · Defence Against the Dark Arts · Herbology · History of Magic · Potions · Transfiguration
Elective classes: Alchemy · Arithmancy · Care of Magical Creatures · Divination · Muggle Studies · Study of Ancient Runes
Extra-curricular classes: Apparition · Advanced Arithmancy Studies · Ancient Studies · Art · Flying · Frog Choir · Ghoul Studies · Hogwarts orchestra · Magical Theory · Muggle Art · Muggle Music · Music · Xylomancy

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