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Curse

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"An' anyway, yeh couldn' work any of them curses yet, yeh'll need a lot more study before yeh get ter that level."
—Rubeus Hagrid to first year Harry Potter[src]

A curse is a tool of the Dark Arts and one of the seven known spell types and the worst kind of Dark Magic.[1] Curses are used with the intention of causing harm, control, or even death to the victim.

Nature

A curse is classified as a Dark spell, which is primarily defined as any spell that consistently affects the object in a negative manner, usually associated with varying levels of discomfort. A curse is the worst kind of dark magic intended to affect the target in a severely negative manner.

Curses are the most wicked, strongest, longest-lasting, and are less reversible of the Dark spell types. The Unforgivable Curses are the strongest known Dark spells in existence, as their effects are very powerful and their use requires skill.

Curses that do not kill the target may remain within the victim's body, and be passed down as a genetic defect that can resurface generations later. Astoria Malfoy was such a person, as her ancestor passed down a curse that showed up in her, causing Astoria's body to be frail, and childbirth was what weakened her to the point of death a few years later.[2]

Usage

Like hexes, Hogwarts students learn only a few of them in school. However, students studying Defence Against the Dark Arts learn how to deal with them using defensive magic. Most curses can be blocked or lifted by a counter-curse, with the most notable exceptions being the Killing curse and the Cruciatus Curse, two of the Unforgivable Curses.

Known curses

Curse Incantation Effect
A Antonin Dolohov's curse The curse is cast using "a sudden slashing movement with thewand," causing a streak of purple flame to strike the target.
B Babbling Curse This curse is not fully understood but it is presumed to cause a person to babble whenever they try to speak.
Blasting Curse Confringo This curse is a spell that causes anything that the spell comes into contact with to explode. This curse can be very dangerous and even deadly, if not used responsibly. It was used in the murder of 12 Muggles.
Blasting curse
C Conjunctivitis Curse A curse that causes irritation in the target's eyes, causing them to swell shut like the infection conjunctivitis, commonly known as "pink eye". The Oculus Potion ends the effects of this curse.
Cruciatus Curse Crucio A tool of the Dark Arts and one of the three Unforgivable Curses. It is one of the most powerful and sinister spells known to wizardkind. When cast successfully, the curse inflicts intense, excruciating pain on the victim.
Crucio1
Curse of the Bogies Mucus ad Nauseam A curse that gives the recipient a strong cold, that can make him or her collapse if not treated, as well as an extremely runny nose.
Curse on Marvolo Gaunt's ring A powerful curse was placed upon Marvolo Gaunt's Ring, around the time that Lord Voldemort turned it into a Horcrux, as a defence against anyone who might try to destroy it. This curse was designed to quickly kill anyone who dared to wear the ring.
Cursed barrier A curse used to prevent the members of the Order from interfering with Draco Malfoy's attempt to assassinate Albus Dumbledore.
D Disintegration curse A curse that causes the person who is hit, to burst into small pieces and disintegrate.
E Ear-shrivelling Curse This curse caused the target's ears to shrivel up.
Entrail-Expelling Curse Its effects are unknown, but presumably it causes one's entrails to be expelled from the body.
Expulso Curse  Expulso A curse used to produce immense explosions, blasting the target apart with a burst of blue light; it has enough force to throw people into walls.
F Fiendfyre

A bewitched flame of abnormal size and heat, infused with dark magic, capable of seeking out living targets despite being non-sentient.

Fiendfyre
Flagrante curse Is a curse that causes objects to emit searing heat when touched.
Full Body-Bind Curse Petrificus Totalus A curse that instantly paralyses the opponent.
PetrificusTotalus PS
Floating Eye Curse Conjures a large, floating eye to hover stationary over an area.
G Gemino Curse  

Geminio

Is a spell used to duplicate an object, creating an exact replica of the target entity. It can also be used to bewitch an object into multiplying repeatedly when touched.

Tumblr lu5g1eMI0y1qgt0vro4 250
Ghostly head curse This spell is a curse that manifests itself as a ghostly green head that can be used to knock out an opponent.
H Hair Loss Curse Calvario A curse that removes the victim's hair or headdress.
I Imperius Curse Imperio A tool of the Dark Arts, and is one of the three Unforgivable Curses. It is one of the most powerful and sinister spells known to wizardkind. When cast successfully, the curse places the victim completely under the caster's control, though a person with exceptional strength of will is capable of resisting it.
Imperio1
J Jelly-Fingers Curse A curse that causes the victim's fingers to take on an almost jelly-like consistency.
Jelly-Legs Curse Locomotor Wibbly A spell that causes the victim's legs to collapse.
K Killing Curse Avada Kedavra A tool of the Dark Arts and one of the three Unforgivable Curses. It is one of the most powerful and sinister spells known to wizardkind. When cast successfully on a living person or creature, the curse causes instantaneous, painless death.
L Leg-Locker Curse Locomotor Mortis Is a curse that is used to bind the legs of the victim together.
Tumblr lpbbhrrQXr1qbteqxo1 250
Lycacomia Curse A Dark spell used to induce lycanthropy.
M Morsmordre

Used to conjure the Dark Mark, the skull-and-serpent sign used by Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters.

Morsmordre
O Opal Necklace Curse A very deadly curse, when it makes physical contact on the victim, the curse would spread rapidly on the recipient, the level of the effect dependent on the amount of contact made. 
R Reductor Curse Reducto A curse that can be used to blast solid objects into pieces. It is rather easy to reduce a target to a fine mist or a pile of ashes.
Full body bind
S Sectumsempra

A dangerous curse, its effect is the equivalent of an invisible sword; it is used to slash the victim from a distance, causing rather deep wounds.

Sectumempra Curse
Sponge-Knees Curse Was a curse which presumably made the target's legs spongy, making it difficult for them to walk.
Slug-Vomiting Charm Slugulus Eructo

A curse, that causes the victim to burp up slugs and slime.

Tumblr mlcf5awtQ71qb5c2jo8 r1 250
T Tongue-Tying Curse Mimble Wimble Binds the target's tongue to keep him or her from talking about a specific subject. 
Thief's Curse A spell that can be applied to books. Its effect is not fully understood, but it activates if someone tries to read a book for too long without paying for it.
Taboo

A powerful spell which designates a word as a key to revealing the speaker's location.

Deatly Hallows - Taboo

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