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- "The Ministry of Magic wishes you a pleasant day..."
- —The Welcome Witch's voice at the Ministry's headquarters[src]
The Ministry of Magic (M.o.M.) is the main governing body of the magical community of Great Britain (i.e. England, Scotland and Wales) and Ireland, with the intention of preservation of magical law. The Ministry connects the British government to the wizarding world. The headquarters of the Ministry are in Whitehall, in central London, deep underground.
It is headed by the Minister for Magic. As of 2019, the Minister of Magic is Hermione Granger. Each Prime Minister of Great Britain is visited by the Minister for Magic. During the height of the Dark Lord's power, the Minister for Magic worked with the Muggle Prime Minister to ensure protection for the Muggle world.
The Ministry of Magic was formed as a successor to the earlier Wizards' Council and came into being in 1707. It was involved, in some capacity before its actual formation, in the International Confederation of Wizards' decision to enact the Statute of Secrecy in 1692 and still today takes the responsibility of enforcing said Statute in the United Kingdom. The laws against magic-use by underage wizards and against wand use by non-wizard folk are also enforced by the Ministry, in part to maintain secrecy.
The headquarters of the Ministry of Magic is located in the heart of London. The actual structure is all underground, although magical windows show whatever weather Magical Maintenance has chosen for the day, from bright sunshine to hurricanes.
A visitor to the Ministry of Magic comes to a broken-down red telephone box located on a dingy street which has several shabby offices, a pub, and a wall covered with graffiti. When the telephone in the box is dialled (62442, the word M-A-G-I-C), the welcome witch’s voice answers, not from the phone but from the air as if the person is standing right there. Visitors must state their business, upon which a silver badge pops out with the visitor’s name and purpose of visit. Then the telephone box drops down like a lift for about one minute, after which the visitor is in the Atrium.
The Atrium, located on level 8, is a large hall with fireplaces up and down both long walls. Down the left-hand side of the hall are gilded fireplaces which witches and wizards can use to arrive at the Ministry. The right-hand side contains gilded fireplaces as well, and these are used for departures. The floor is polished dark wood. The ceiling is peacock blue with golden symbols moving across it. The Fountain of Magical Brethren lies halfway down the Atrium. A group of golden statues, depicting a wizard, a witch, a centaur, a goblin, and a house-elf, spout water into the surrounding pool of water. At the end of the Atrium is a set of golden gates, next to which is a security stand. Eric Munch is usually on duty here. He registers the wands of visitors. Another smaller hall is beyond the gates and here there is a series of lifts.
The lifts provide access to the other levels, except the tenth.
Level one is the location of the offices of the Minister for Magic and other administrative staff. Level two is the location of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement. Level three houses the Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes. Level four contains the Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures. Level five is the Department of International Magical Cooperation. Level six contains the Department of Magical Transportation. Level seven is the location of the Department of Magical Games and Sports. Level eight is the Atrium and Level nine is the Department of Mysteries.
Level ten can only be reached by the stairs to the left of the door which leads to the Department of Mysteries on level nine. Courtroom Ten was first seen during Harry’s first forays into Dumbledore’s Pensieve, when he witnessed various Death Eater trials. Dungeon-like corridors lead to Courtroom Ten. The walls of the courtroom are dark stone. In the centre of the room is a chair covered in chains that stands below rows of high benches on which the Wizengamot sit.
The Ministry of Magic was founded in 1707 to succeed the earlier Wizards' Council, with Head of the Wizengamot Ulick Gamp serving as the first Minister for Magic, from 1707-1718. Gamp had the onerous job of policing a fractious and frightened community adjusting to the imposition of the International Statute of Secrecy. His greatest legacy was to found the Department of Magical Law Enforcement.
In 1717, the Ministry classified the Imperius, Cruciatus, and Avada Kedavra curses the Unforgivable Curses, with the strictest of penalties attached to their use. By the 1990s, their use would command a life sentence in Azkaban.
Damocles Rowle was the Minister of Magic from 1718-1726. He was elected on a platform of being 'tough on Muggles'. When the Ministry proposed a purpose-built wizarding prison on a remote Hebridean island, Rowle swiftly scrapped the plans and insisted on using Azkaban instead, which was carried through despite protests. Censured by the International Confederation of Wizards, he was eventually forced to step down.
Perseus Parkinson was the Minister of Magic from 1726-1733. He attempted to pass a bill making it illegal to marry a Muggle. This proved to be against the public mood; the wizarding community, tired of anti-Muggle sentiment and wanting peace, voted him out at the first opportunity. Parkinson was also pro-Azkaban.
Eldritch Diggory was the Minister of Magic from 1733-1747. He was a popular Minister who first established an Auror recruitment programme. While visited Azkaban, Diggory realised exactly what conditions inside were like. Prisoners were mostly insane and a graveyard had been established to accommodate those that died of despair. He established a committee to explore alternatives to Azkaban, or at least to remove the Dementors as guards. Before they could reach any decision, however, Diggory caught Dragon Pox and died.Basil Flack was the Minister of Magic for two months in 1752. He was the shortest serving Minister, having resigned after the rebelling goblins joined forces with werewolves.
Hesphaestus Gore was the Minister of Magic from 1752-1770. One of the earliest Aurors, he successfully put down a number of revolts by magical beings, although historians feel his refusal to contemplate rehabilitation programmes for werewolves ultimately led to more attacks. Renovated and reinforced the prison of Azkaban.
Maximilian Crowdy was the Minister of Magic from 1770-1781. Father of nine, he was a charismatic leader who routed out several extremist pure-blood groups planning Muggle attacks. When the Revolutionary War began in 1775, the Ministry of Magic were asked by MCUSA to decide whether they were to intervene and help their Muggle neighbours. In 1777, MCUSA President Elizabeth McGilliguddy asked Crowdy what they was decided. So he replied with a simple four word letter stating that they were "sitting this one out", to which she replied with an even shorter letter stating "mind you do". Crowdy's mysterious death in office has been the subject of numerous books and conspiracy theories.
Porteus Knatchbull was the Minister of Magic from 1781-1789. He was called in confidentially in 1782 by the Muggle Prime Minister of the day, Lord Frederick North, to see whether he could help with King George III's emerging mental instability. When leaked out that Lord North believed in wizards, he was forced to resign after a motion of no confidence.
Unctuous Osbert was the Minister of Magic from 1789-1798. Because he was too much influenced by pure-bloods of wealth and status, many saw him as little more a puppet to his own advisor Septimus Malfoy, who would have served as the Ministry's de facto head.
Artemisia Lufkin was the Minister from 1798-1811. The first witch to ever hold the office, she established the Department of International Magical Co-operation, lobbying hard and successfully to have a Quidditch World Cup tournament held in Britain during her term.
Grogan Stump was the Minister from 1811-1819. Very popular and passionate fan of Quidditch team Tutshill Tornados, he established the Department of Magical Games and Sports and managed to steer through legislation on magical beasts and beings that had long been a source of contention.
Josephina Flint was the Minister from 1819-1827. Revealed an unhealthy anti-Muggle bias in office; disliked new Muggle technology such as the telegraph, which she claimed interfered with proper wand function.
Ottaline Gambol was the Minister from 1827-1835. A much more forward-looking Minister, Gambol established committees to investigate Muggle brainpower which seemed, during this period of the British Empire, to be greater than some wizards had credited.
Radolphus Lestrange was the Minister from 1835-1841. Reactionary who attempted to close down the Department of Mysteries, which ignored him. Eventually resigned due to ill health, which was widely rumoured to be inability to cope with the strains of office.
Hortensia Milliphutt was the Minister from 1841-1849. Introduced more legislation than any other sitting Minister, much of it useful, but some wearisome (hat pointiness and so on), which ultimately resulted in her political downfall.
Evangeline Orpington was the Minister from 1849-1855. A good friend of Queen Victoria's, who never realised that she was a witch, let alone Minister for Magic. Orpington is believed to have intervened magically (and illegally) in the Crimean War.
Priscilla Dupont was the Minister from 1855-1858. Conceived an irrational loathing of the Muggle Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, to an extent that caused such trouble (coins turning to frogspawn in his coat pockets, etc.) that she was forced to step down. Ironically, Palmerston was forced to resign by the Muggles two days later.
Faris "Spout-hole" Spavin was the Minister from 1865-1903. Longest-ever serving Minister for Magic, and also the most long-winded, he survived an 'assassination attempt' (kicking) from a centaur who resented the punchline of Spavin's infamous 'a centaur, a ghost and a dwarf walk into a bar' joke. Attended Queen Victoria's funeral in an admiral's hat and spats, at which point the Wizengamot suggested gently that it was time he move aside (Spavin was 147 when he left office).
Venusia Crickerly was the Minister for Magic from 1903-1912. Second ex-Auror to take office and considered both competent and likeable, Crickerly died in a freak gardening accident (mandrake related).
Archer Evermonde was the Minister from 1912-1923. In post during the Muggle First World War, Evermonde passed emergency legislation forbidding witches and wizards to get involved, lest they risk mass infractions of the International Statute of Secrecy. Thousands defied him, aiding Muggles where they could.
Lorcan McLaird was the Minister from 1923-1925. A gifted wizard, but an unlikely politician, McLaird was an exceptionally taciturn man who preferred to communicate in monosyllables and expressive puffs of smoke that he produced through the end of his wand. Forced from office out of sheer irritation at his eccentricities.
Hector Fawley was the Minister of Magic from 1925-1939. Undoubtedly voted in because of his marked difference to McLaird, the ebullient and flamboyant Fawley did not take sufficiently seriously the threat presented to the world wizarding community by Gellert Grindelwald. He paid with his job.
Leonard Spencer-Moon was the Minister from 1939-1948. A sound Minister who rose through the ranks from being tea-boy in the Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes. Oversaw a great period of international wizarding and Muggle conflict. Enjoyed a good working relationship with Winston Churchill.
Wilhelmina Tuft was the Minister from 1948-1959. Cheery witch who presided over a period of welcome peace and prosperity. Died in office after discovering, too late, her allergy to Alihotsy-flavoured fudge.
Ignatius Tuft was the Minister from 1959-1962. Son of the above. A hard-liner who capitalised on his mother's popularity to gain election. Promised to institute a controversial and dangerous Dementor breeding programme and was forced from office.
Nobby Leach was the Minister from 1962-1968. First Muggle-born Minister for Magic, his appointment caused consternation among the old (pure-blood) guard, many of whom resigned government posts in protest. Has always denied having anything to do with England's 1966 Quidditch World Cup win. Left office after contracting mysterious illness (conspiracy theories abound).
Eugenia Jenkins was the Minister from 1968-1975. Jenkins dealt competently with pure-blood riots during Squib Rights marches in the late sixties, but was soon confronted with the first rise of Lord Voldemort. Jenkins was soon ousted from office as inadequate to the challenge.
Millicent Bagnold was the Minister from 1980-1990. A highly able Minister, she had to answer to the International Confederation of Wizards for the number of breaches of the International Statute of Secrecy on the day and night after Harry Potter survived Lord Voldemort's attack. Acquitted herself magnificently with the now infamous words: 'I assert our inalienable right to party', which drew cheers from all present.
Shortly before Minister Millicent Bagnold's retirement in 1990, many of the wizarding population wanted Albus Dumbledore to become Minister. He was offered the job four times, but turned it down, because of his previous negative experiences with power.
The most likely person to become Minister from that point on was Bartemius Crouch Senior, who as Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement had gained popularity from his purges of Death Eaters after the first fall of Lord Voldemort, including arresting his own son for participating in the Cruciatus Curse torture of Alice and Frank Longbottom. However, he fell out of favour when people suspected that his son's actions and death in Azkaban were the result of Crouch neglecting his son and by not spending enough time at home due to his ministerial pursuits.
Under Cornelius Fudge
Cornelius Fudge was Minister for Magic during the events surrounding Lord Voldemort's second rise to power. He became Minister for Magic in 1990 and stayed on as Minister until being sacked on 2 July 1996. Early on in his administration he requested frequent help from wizards such as Albus Dumbledore, but he later became suspicious of Dumbledore and believed that he was trying to usurp Fudge's position.
In the summer of 1992, Head of the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office Arthur Weasley proposed a Muggle Protection Act, leading to a massive Ministry crackdown for illegally enchanted or dark objects. At the same time, the Improper Use of Magic Office sent Harry Potter a letter of reprimand after the Malfoy family house-elf, Dobby, performed magic in an attempt to keep him away from Hogwarts. In early 1993, Fudge went to Hogwarts to send Rubeus Hagrid to Azkaban on suspicion of opening the Chamber of Secrets, an accusation that had led to his expulsion from Hogwarts 50 years earlier. Hagrid was eventually freed in June after the trio solved the mystery of the Chamber of Secrets.
In the summer of 1993, convicted mass-murderer Sirius Black escaped from Azkaban, leading to a massive Ministry manhunt. In early 1994, Severus Snape captured Black and returned him to Fudge's custody, but Harry Potter and Hermione Granger had earlier discovered in the Shrieking Shack that Black was not really to blame for the crimes of which he was accused. They helped him escape by using a Ministry Time-Turner and Buckbeak the hippogriff, thus making the Ministry a "laughingstock".
Organising the 1994-1995 Triwizard Tournament involved substantial efforts from the Department of International Magical Cooperation, the Department of Magical Games and Sports, and other parts of the Ministry. The Tournament concluded with the death of Cedric Diggory and the Rebirth of Lord Voldemort on 24 June, 1995. Fudge refused to believe Dumbledore and Harry Potter's accounts of these events, leading Dumbledore to re-activate the Order of the Phoenix to counter Voldemort. Because of Fudge's refusal to see the truth, the wizarding community was put at a disadvantage when dealing with the immanent threat of Lord Voldemort and his followers.
After Voldemort's return, the Ministry campaigned to discredit Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter, as Fudge, his mind "twisted and warped by fear", refused to believe this horrifying truth. This trend of attempting to minimise the immediate damage included the Ministry's attempts to get Harry drummed out of the wizarding community, forcing on teachers an oversight on Hogwarts, removing privileges from Dumbledore and anyone who accepted his statement that Voldemort had returned, and encouraging the Daily Prophet to publish stories mocking and denigrating Dumbledore and Harry.
On 12 August, Harry was summoned to a disciplinary hearing at the Ministry, pertaining to what the Ministry termed "offences committed under the Decree for the Reasonable Restriction of Underage Sorcery and the International Statute of Secrecy". The hearing was changed to a full court trial, which was unorthodox and was outside the context of the law, in a biassed and obvious attempt to further discredit Harry.
Finally the Ministry had to hide the reason for the mass breakout from Azkaban, as the Ministry could not explain, or justify, the defection of the Dementors. Lord Voldemort and his Death Eaters tried to retrieve a specific prophecy pertaining to Harry Potter and Lord Voldemort from the Hall of Prophecy on Level Nine, the Department of Mysteries. In order to do that, they placed both Broderick Bode and Sturgis Podmore under the Imperius Curse to no avail, as only Harry could take it from its shelf.
Shortly after midnight on 18 June, 1996, the Death Eaters lured Harry and and five other Dumbledore's Army members into the deserted Ministry. A battle broke out over a prophesy concerning Harry and the Dark Lord. The D.A. members did well holding the Death Eaters at bay until help arrived. The Order of the Phoenix went to rescue them, and the Death Chamber standoff ensued, which resulted in the death of Sirius Black at the hands of his cousin Bellatrix Lestrange. The standoff also included a duel between Voldemort and Dumbledore in the Atrium of the Ministry.
After the battle, Fudge and several other witnesses saw Voldemort with their own eyes, and this position of denial became untenable. Thus, the Ministry was forced to acknowledge the return of the Dark Lord and Fudge was unceremoniously replaced by Rufus Scrimgeour, although Fudge was allowed to aid in an "advisory capacity". The public was then made aware of the growing threat to its population and this marked the start of open warfare.
Under Rufus Scrimgeour
- "Maybe the Ministry should put some people onto that, instead of wasting their time stripping down Deluminators or covering up breakouts from Azkaban... People are dying — I was nearly one of them — Voldemort chased me across three counties, he killed Mad-Eye Moody, but there’s no word about any of that from the Ministry, has there? And you still expect us to cooperate with you!"
- —Harry Potter's position regarding the way the Ministry is operating[src]
In response to the war situation the country was facing, Rufus Scrimgeour, the previous Head of the Auror Office, was appointed Fudge's successor on 2 July 1996, and was responsible for the creation of several new bureaucracy, such as the Office for the Detection and Confiscation of Counterfeit Defensive Spells and Protective Objects.
Despite this, Scrimgeour did not fare much better than Fudge. Again reacting to public opinion, Scrimgeour tried desperately to make the Ministry look like it was making progress, despite the reality being to the contrary, such as wrongfully imprisoning Stan Shunpike. Under Scrimgeour's regime, there was no progress. He was too concerned with the appearance of false safety, something that would ultimately lead to his downfall and the downfall of the Ministry.
Harry had two meetings with Scrimgeour, in which Harry Potter's co-operation with the Ministry was solicited for his propaganda value: the Ministry wanted Harry to be the "poster child" for the Ministry so as to give the public hope, by telling them that the Ministry remained a source of safety, strength, and that "the Chosen One" endorsed the Ministry's investigations. Harry turned Scrimgeour down flat both times. Harry made it perfectly clear that he did not approve of what the Ministry was doing and made his opinion of Scrimgeour known. This led the Minister of Magic to believe that Harry was arrogant and the two parted on bad terms. The two remained on bad terms during the reading of the last will and testament of Dumbledore and it came to an argument in which Scrimgeour lost control of his temper. Harry stated that he will never cooperate with the Ministry if they keep conducting themselves in a less then positive way as they have previously done.
In the summer of 1997, shortly after Albus Dumbledore's murder, the Atrium at the Ministry was the setting for a speech by Scrimgeour about the "dark times" in which the wizarding world was living, and how the Ministry remained "strong" and active in the fight against the dark forces. In the meantime, the Death Eaters were managing to infiltrate the Ministry by magically controlling some of the its higher-ranking officials. As a result, later in the summer, on the evening of 1 August, 1997, the Ministry was the stage of a silent coup, during which Scrimgeour was murdered while refusing to give the Death Eaters any information on Harry Potter.
Under Pius Thicknesse
After the Death Eater coup, the Ministry of Magic was headed by Pius Thicknesse. Thicknesse was under Death Eater control by the Imperius Curse. Voldemort chose not to openly reveal himself as Minister, so as to keep an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty within the community. Much more security was added to the building and personal were monitored. In addition, lower-ranking employees were now forced to go to work via a toilet network, accessible inside a set of underground public toilets in Whitehall; only the senior-ranking personnel are permitted Apparition and Floo Network access. The Ministry became very corrupt under Pius's time in office.
Under Thicknesse's control, the Ministry became totalitarian, placing surveillance upon those of whom it was suspicious, such as Arthur Weasley, and creating the Muggle-Born Registration Commission to prosecute Muggle-borns for allegedly stealing magic. Unfair trials were held in to weed out Muggle-borns and to give the impression of justice, although it was anything but. The Ministry also acquired the motto 'Magic is Might', which was inscribed upon a sculpture with a witch and wizard sitting on thrones made of Muggles. Death Eaters such as Yaxley gained high positions within the Ministry, as well.
Snatchers or bounty hunters were also employed by the Ministry. Snatchers appeared to be a relatively informal organisation with the main purpose of rounding up or arresting Muggle-borns and "blood traitors". Snatcher camps were set up all over England. If they caught their intended targets, said targets were killed or sent to Azkaban.
Under Kingsley Shacklebolt
In 1998, after the destruction of Lord Voldemort and the end of the Second Wizarding War, Kingsley Shacklebolt became Minister for Magic and led a massive reform of the Ministry. He did this in effort to weed out corruption and prejudice. Kingsley replenished the Auror office and saw that the Death Eaters that escaped custody were caught and tried for their crimes against the wizarding community.
The revitalisation and reform included the efforts of Harry Potter and Ron Weasley in the Auror Office, and Hermione Granger advancing the rights of non-humans, and eradicating pro-pure-blood laws in the Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures and later the Department of Magical Law Enforcement. The Ministry is now a much happier place to work thanks to the reforms.
- "All right, Fudge is leaning on the Prophet, but it comes to the same thing. They won't print a story that shows Harry in a good light. Nobody wants to read it. It's against the public mood. This last Azkaban breakout has got people quite worried enough. People just don't want to believe You-Know-Who's back."
- —The Daily Prophet's role during the campaign to discredit Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter[src]
The Ministry's employees are largely unelected, but the Minister for Magic is elected by an unknown group. Employment with the Ministry can be obtained directly upon completion of a wizarding education, although different offices require different levels of education and sometimes specific exam results. Both the Minister and the Ministry as a whole are seen to be sensitive to wizard public opinion, which they attempt to influence via the wizarding newspaper the Daily Prophet.
The Ministry of Magic have no rights to punish Hogwarts students for misdemeanours, nor do they have privilege of their expulsion and wand confiscation unless charges have been successfully proven and passed. Dumbledore made it clear to Fudge that the Ministry has little influence on the detailed workings within the school, which Fudge tried to change with a series of Educational Decrees, effectively annexing the school into the government.
Minister for Magic
The Minister for Magic is the elected leader of the Ministry. The post of Minister for Magic was established with the creation of the Ministry of Magic after the International Statute of Secrecy went into effect. The first Minister (Ulick Gamp) took office in 1707.The Minister and Support Staff occupy Level One of the Ministry. The Minister enjoys a position of great prominence and prestige. He or she represents the British magical community in international affairs and sets the tone for the policies of the Ministry of Magic. In addition to this, the Minister for Magic is known to the Muggle Prime Minister, and the two leaders communicate when necessary. The Minister for Magic also presides over the Wizengamot.
During the puppet regime set up by Lord Voldemort in 1997-1998, this level also housed the office of the Head of the Muggle-Born Registration Commission. After the war the Muggle-Born Registration Commission was disbanded and discarded. It includes these offices: Office of the Minister for Magic, Office of the Advisor to the Minister for Magic, Office of the Senior Undersecretary to the Minister for Magic, and Office of the Junior Assistant to the Minister for Magic.
The Ministry has seven departments in all, each dealing with different aspects of the wizarding world. The Department of Magical Law Enforcement being the largest and all others more or less answering to it (except the Department of Mysteries).
Each Department has a level of Ministry Headquarters assigned to it, although Law Enforcement has not only level two but also the courtrooms of level ten. There are also many minor offices within the departments. The departments communicate through "interdepartmental memos" written on pale-violet paper aeroplanes, which fly on their own to destinations, because previous routine use of owls for messages within the Ministry caused an excess of dirtying by owl droppings and moulted feathers. The known departments and their offices are the following:
Department of Magical Law Enforcement
|The Department of Magical Law Enforcement is a combination of police and justice facilities and has power over all other departments except the Department of Mysteries. It includes the following offices:|
|Office for the Detection and Confiscation of Counterfeit Defensive Spells and Protective Objects|
|Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office|
|Improper Use of Magic Office|
|Wizengamot Administration Services|
Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes
- "Level Three, Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes, incorporating the Accidental Magic Reversal Squad, Obliviator Headquarters and Muggle-Worthy Excuse Committee."
- —Voice of lift at the Ministry of Magic[src]
|The Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes is responsible for repairing accidental magical damage. It includes the following offices:|
|Accidental Magic Reversal Squad|
|Muggle-Worthy Excuse Committee|
|Invisibility Task Force|
|Muggle Liaison Office|
Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures
- "Each wizarding governing body will be responsible for the concealment, care and control of all magical beasts, beings, and spirits dwelling within its territory's borders. Should any such creature cause harm to, or draw the notice of, the Muggle community, that nation's wizarding governing body will be subject to discipline by the International Confederation of Wizards."
- —Clause 73 of the International Statute of Wizarding Secrecy[src]
|The Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures is responsible for studying, regulating, and controlling magical creatures. It includes the following offices:|
|Goblin Liaison Office|
|Centaur Liaison Office|
|Pest Advisory Board|
|Office of Misinformation|
Department of International Magical Cooperation
- "Level Five, Department of International Magical Cooperation, incorporating the International Magical Trading Standards Body, the International Magical Office of Law and the International Confederation of Wizards, British Seats."
- —Voice of lift at the Ministry of Magic[src]
|The Department of International Magical Cooperation deals with foreign affairs, both political and public. It includes the following offices:|
|International Magical Trading Standards Body|
|International Magical Office of Law|
|International Confederation of Wizards, British Seats|
Department of Magical Transportation
- "Level Six, Department of Magical Transportation, incorporating the Floo Network Authority, Broom Regulatory Control, Portkey Office and Apparition Test Centre."
- —Voice of lift at the Ministry of Magic[src]
|The Department of Magical Transportation is responsible for various aspects of magical transportation. It includes the following offices:|
|Floo Network Authority|
|Broom Regulatory Control|
|Apparition Test Centre|
Department of Magical Games and Sports
- "Level seven, Department of Magical Games and Sports, incorporating the British and Irish Quidditch League Headquarters, Official Gobstones Club, and Ludicrous Patents Office."
- —Voice of lift at the Ministry of Magic[src]
|The Department of Magical Games and Sports deals with organising sports events and enforcing game-related laws and regulations. It includes the following offices:|
|British and Irish Quidditch League Headquarters|
|Official Gobstones Club|
|Ludicrous Patents Office|
Department of Mysteries
- "The lift clattered into view and they hurried inside. Every time it stopped Mr Weasley cursed furiously and pummelled the number nine button. 'Department of Mysteries,' said the cool female voice, and left it at that."
- —Voice of lift at the Ministry of Magic[src]
|The Department of Mysteries, located on Level Nine, is a section of the Ministry of Magic that carries out confidential research regarding particular enigmas (death, time, space, thought, and love) and stores copies of prophecies. Most of its operations are carried out in total secrecy from the general wizard populace. The Department contains the following chambers in which various mysteries of life are studied:|
|Hall of Prophecy|
|Love Chamber (a.k.a. The Ever-Locked Room)|
- "A long-awaited Ministry for Magic [sic] report made public today warns against the dangers of underestimating Muggles. A Study into Muggle Suspicions about Magic draws conclusions which may shock the wizarding community. Professor Phoebus Penrose, who headed the committee which drew up the report, says that Muggles are more observant than we might like to think."
- —Daily Prophet, 31 July 1998[src]
Possible offices or affiliates
- "Ludo Bagman, you have been brought here in front of the Council of Magical Law to answer charges relating to the activities of the Death Eaters."
- —Bagman's trail before the council[src]
Courtroom procedureMinister for Magic Ulick Gamp 's greatest legacy was to found the Department of Magical Law Enforcement. The Wizengamot and Council of Magical Law are subdivisions of this department.
The Wizengamot is the high court of wizarding law in Britain. The head of the Wizengamot is called the Chief Warlock, an old-fashioned title that denotes “particular skill or achievements” similar to a Muggle knighthood. A Court Scribe takes notes of the proceedings. Wizengamot members wear plum-colored robes with an elaborate silver "W" on the left side.
The high Wizard court of law, held in a dungeon. In court, the accused is magically bound to a chair in the centre of the room. A jury sits on the right of the prosecutor who states the case against the accused and eventually asks for a verdict.
Ministers for Magic
The following is a list of the Ministers for Magic and their tenures in office:
|Ulick Gamp †||(1707—1718)||The first Minister for Magic and previously head of the Wizengamot|
|Damocles Rowle||(1718—1726)||Anti-Muggle wizard politician, responsible for the creation of the wizard prison known as Azkaban|
|Perseus Parkinson||(1726—1733)||He attempted to pass a bill making it illegal to marry a Muggle|
|Eldritch Diggory †||(1733—1747)||He was a popular Minister and first established an Auror recruitment programme in Great Britain|
|Albert Boot||(1747—1752)||An inept Minister. After mismanaging a goblin rebellion, he resigned from the post|
|Basil Flack||(1752—1752)||Appointed a temporary acting Minister instead of being elected by the Wizarding population due to the crisis of the goblin rebellions|
|Hesphaestus Gore||(1752—1770)||Was one of the earliest Aurors. Gore successfully put down a number of revolts by the magical beings and was also responsible for renovating and reinforcing the prison of Azkaban|
|Maximilian Crowdy †||(1770—1781)||Crowdy was a charismatic leader who routed out several extremist pure-blood groups planning Muggle attacks. His mysterious death in office has been the subject of numerous books and conspiracy theories|
|Porteus Knatchbull||(1781—1789)||He was called in confidentially by the Muggle Prime Minister of the day to see whether he could help with King George III's emerging mental instability|
|Unctuous Osbert||(1789—1798)||He was accused of having been a puppet in the hands of Septimus Malfoy|
|Artemisia Lufkin †||(1798—1811)||The first female ever to hold the office, being elected at least twice|
|Grogan Stump †||(1811—1819)||Deeply restructured the Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures, and established the Department of Magical Games and Sports|
|Josephina Flint||(1819—1827)||Revealed a severe anti-Muggle bias during her term; specifically attacked new Muggle inventions such as the telegraph, which she claimed interfered with wand function|
|Ottaline Gambol||(1827—1835)||Came up with the idea of having the Hogwarts Express to solve the dilemma of how to transport students to Hogwarts|
|Radolphus Lestrange||(1835—1841)||Unsuccessfully attempted to close down the Department of Mysteries, resigned due to ill health|
|Hortensia Milliphutt||(1841—1849)||Introduced more legislation than any other Minister. Political downfall came when she began passing regulations on hat pointiness and other wearisome laws|
|Evangeline Orpington||(1849—1855)||Had concealed platforms built at King's Cross Station to house wizarding trains|
|Priscilla Dupont||(1855—1858)||Developed an irrational loathing of the Muggle Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, which led to a series of Muggle-baiting incidents|
|Dugald McPhail||(1858—1865)||A period of calm and stability. Established the Knight Bus in 1865|
|Faris Spavin||(1865—1903)||Longest-serving Minister. Left office at age 147|
|Venusia Crickerly †||(1903—1912)||Competent and likeable Minister|
|Archer Evermonde||(1912—1923)||Passed emergency legislation preventing wizards from taking part in the on-going First World War|
|Lorcan McLaird||(1923—1925)||An exceptionally taciturn man who preferred to communicate in monosyllables and expressive puffs of smoke that he produced with his wand|
|Hector Fawley||(1925—1939)||Term in office coincided with the beginning of Gellert Grindelwald's. Fawley did not take Grindelwald's threat to the world wizarding community seriously and was forced from his office|
|Leonard Spencer-Moon||(1939—1948)||A sound Minister, oversaw a period of great turmoil in both the wizarding (global wizarding war) and the Muggle world (Second World War)|
|Wilhelmina Tuft †||(1948—1959)||Presided over a period of welcome peace and prosperity. Died in office, after eating Alihotsy-flavoured fudge|
|Ignatius Tuft||(1959—1962)||Tried to institute a controversial and dangerous Dementor breeding programme, and was forced from his office|
|Nobby Leach||(1962—1968)||First Muggle-born Minister for Magic. Left office after contracting a mysterious illness (Abraxas Malfoy is widely believed to have been part of the shady plot that made him leave his post prematurely)|
|Eugenia Jenkins||(1968—1975)||Dealt competently with the pure-blood riots during the Squib Rights marches of the late 1960s. The first rise of Lord Voldemort saw her ousted from office|
|Harold Minchum||(1975—1980)||Hard-liner. Placed even more Dementors in Azkaban, but could not contain Voldemort's seemingly unstoppable rise to power|
|Millicent Bagnold||(1980—1990)||Minister during the terminal phase of the First Wizarding War. Responsible for the successful Death Eater trials immediately after the war|
|Cornelius Fudge||(1990—1 July, 1996)||Fudge relied heavily on Dumbledore in the first years of his term. When Lord Voldemort returned, Fudge persistently refused to accept it. Was ousted from office when Voldemort appeared in the Ministry itself|
|Rufus Scrimgeour †||(1 July, 1996—1 August, 1997)||Replaced Cornelius Fudge in the height of the Second Wizarding War. He was incompetent during his term. Murdered at the hands of Voldemort during a Death Eater coup|
|Pius Thicknesse||(1 August, 1997—2 May, 1998)||Put under the Imperius Curse by the Death Eaters, and appointed Minister following their coup. Thicknesse was effectively a puppet of the Death Eater regime|
|Kingsley Shacklebolt||(2 May, 1998—c. 2019)||Oversaw the capture of Death Eaters and supporters following Voldemort's death. Led a massive reform of the Ministry, rid it of corruption and pro-pure-blood laws and purged Dementors from Azkaban|
|Hermione Granger||(c. 2019—?)||Hero of the Second Wizarding War|
Following the revelation that Voldemort was back, Fudge was replaced as Minister as he had denied the truth for nearly a year. He was replaced by Rufus Scrimgeour before he was killed by Voldemort and replaced by Pius Thicknesse, who was acting under the influence of the Imperius Curse and put in power by Voldemort.
Albus Dumbledore was offered the job of Minister and refused it at least four times. In his latter days at Hogwarts, Tom Riddle was widely predicted to become Minister as he had great intelligence and magical talent along with a great talent for creating strategic alliances with people. He could also gather followers to serve his interests. However, Riddle refused every opportunity to work at the Ministry, as a career in the government did not strike his interest.
Heads of Departments and Offices
|Justus Pilliwickle||1800s/1900s||He worked for the Ministry of Magic and was a celebrated Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement.|
|Amelia Bones †||(?—July, 1996)||Head of Department of Magical Law Enforcement, murdered by Voldemort himself.|
|Bartemius Crouch Snr †||(?— 27 May, 1995)||Head of Department of International Magical Cooperation; previously served as head of Department of Magical Law Enforcement. Was murdered by his Death Eater son.|
|Ludovic Bagman||(?—1995)||Head of Department of Magical Games and Sports. His career at the Ministry ended in mid-1995, when he had to go on the run from goblins.|
|Percy Weasley||2000s||Head of Department of Magical Transportation, previously served as Assistant to the Head of Department of International Magical Cooperation and Junior Assistant to the Minister for Magic under Cornelius Fudge, Rufus Scrimgeour and Pius Thicknesse|
|Bob Ogden †||1920s||Head of the Magical Law Enforcement Office|
|Arthur Weasley||(c. 1968—?)||Head of the Office for the Detection and Confiscation of Counterfeit Defensive Spells and Protective Objects (under Rufus Scrimgeour); previously served as Head of the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office (under Cornelius Fudge)|
|Cuthbert Mockridge||(1990s—1996)||Head of the Goblin Liaison Office. Cresswell was forced to step down from office and was later murdered by Snatchers during the height of the Second Wizarding War.|
|Dirk Cresswell †||(1990s—1997)|
|Gawain Robards||(1996—2007)||Previous head of the Auror office|
|Corban Yaxley||(1997—1998)||Head of Magical Law Enforcement under Lord Voldemort's regime, was placed as the head after a Ministry coup.|
|Harry Potter||(2007—2022)||Former head of the Auror office, was the youngest ever appointed. Is now the head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement.|
|Broderick Bode †||"Unspeakable," Department of Mysteries|
|Amos Diggory||Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures, now retired and living at St Oswald’s Home for Old Witches and Wizards|
|Madam Edgecombe||Floo Network Office|
|Mafalda Hopkirk||Improper Use of Magic Office, worked for the Muggle-Born Registration Commission during the height of the Second Wizarding War|
|Alice Longbottom||Aurors and members of the original Order of the Phoenix, captured and tortured into insanity by four Death Eaters during the First Wizarding War (permanent medical leave)|
|Walden Macnair||Committee for the Disposal of Dangerous Creatures, worked as an executioner for dangerous creatures. He is also a known Death Eater.|
|Bertha Jorkins †||Department of Magical Games and Sports|
|Alastor "Mad-Eye" Moody †||Auror, one of the most famous of modern times. Half the cells in Azkaban are full of Dark Wizards because of him.|
|Perkins||Arthur Weasley's co-worker in the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office|
|Proudfoot||Auror, one of the guardians of Hogwarts|
|Newt Scamander||Beast Division, Department for the Regulation and Control of Magical Creatures, retired, and author of Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them|
|Nymphadora Tonks †||Auror, one of the guardians of Hogwarts. She fought in the Battle of the Department of Mysteries and was murdered by Bellatrix Lestrange during the Battle of Hogwarts|
|Dolores Umbridge||Senior Undersecretary to the Minister for Magic under Cornelius Fudge, Hogwarts High-Inquisitor, and former head of the Muggle-Born Registration Commission|
|Gilbert Wimple||On the Committee on Experimental Charms, had horns that he presumably acquired as a result of one of his experiments|
|Ron Weasley||Former Auror, before pursuing other ventures. Both were heroes of the Second Wizarding War. Ron went on to work at Weasley's Wizard Wheezes and Neville became the professor of Herbology at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.|
The Ministry keeps in touch with the Muggle Prime Minister of the United Kingdom through the help of a portrait in the Downing Street office. The portrait is fixed to the wall with a Permanent Sticking Charm so no Muggles will be able to remove it, and the subject of the painting will notify the Prime Minister of Muggles of the Minister for Magic's impending arrivals. The British Crown, including the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the Monarch, are in full knowledge of the Ministry.
Each new Muggle Prime Minister receives a visit from the Minister for Magic, who informs him or her that the wizarding world exists. He explains that he will contact the Prime Minister only in circumstances in which the events of the wizard world may affect Muggles. For example, the Minister has to inform the Prime Minister if dangerous magical artefacts or animals are to be brought into the U.K.
The Ministry keeps in touch with the British Prime Minister via a portrait depicting Ulick Gamp, in the Prime Minister's office at 10 Downing Street. The portrait, which cannot be removed from the wall (because of a Permanent Sticking Charm in place), notifies the Prime Minister of the Minister for Magic's arrival via the Floo Network. No Muggle Prime Minister has ever set foot in the Ministry of Magic; as summed up by former Minister Dugald McPhail, "their puir wee braines couldnae cope wi' it". Ministers Cornelius Fudge and Rufus Scrimgeour tended to act in a somewhat patronising manner towards the Muggle Prime Minister.
However, after the Fall of the Ministry of Magic into the hands of Lord Voldemort and Pius Thicknesse became minister as Voldemort's puppet, a new era of Wizard-Muggle relations was brought on that was more in line with Death Eater ideology. These actions included the instalment of the "Magic is Might" statue in the Ministry Atrium to replace the Fountain of Magical Brethren. This statue depicts a witch and wizard on top of a throne made from the bodies of crude-looking Muggles, with twisted ugly faces.
While prejudiced depictions of Muggles were taught by professors Amycus and Alecto Carrow at Hogwarts School under its new headmaster, Severus Snape, the Ministry began claiming that Muggle-borns "stole" their magic from "real" witches and wizards. The Muggle-Born Registration Commission, headed by Dolores Umbridge, was set up to persecute and imprison Muggle-borns. Furthermore, the Snatchers organisation was formed in an attempt to round up any Muggle-borns or blood traitors on the run. People with known connections to the Order of the Phoenix or sympathies for Muggles, such as Arthur Weasley, were put under surveillance, and a reward for the capture of Harry Potter, known to the Ministry as "Undesirable No. 1", was offered.
Presumably, after Voldemort's defeat and Kingsley Shacklebolt's installation of Minister for Magic, the cruel, prejudiced measures imposed under the Death Eater regime towards Muggles (such as the Muggle-Born Registration Commission) were abolished and the Ministry went on communicating with the Muggle Prime Minister when necessary.
The magical government sometimes has given the impression of, at various times, either incompetence or malice, which are demonstrated by successful break-outs from Azkaban and the campaign to discredit Albus Dumbledore and Harry Potter, respectively. The Ministry has been known to be corrupt in nature, as it is shown to be quite prepared to decree and enforce draconian laws without notice, and seem uninterested in solving serious problems, choosing instead to ignore or cover up bad news. More often than not, the Ministry was focused on positive publicity rather than genuine betterment of the community, and took the pressures from the satisfaction of the majority citizens as a factor to their decisions.
The Ministry has proven their incompetent and insensitive nature in terms of dealing with werewolves, which resulted in years of poor surveillance. The government arrogantly expected the werewolves would willingly show up to sign the Werewolf Register and Werewolf Code of Conduct, in that they would openly admit their infection and promise to lock themselves up to protect the community. Unsurprisingly, no one showed up to sign either due to the stigma, which the Ministry has apparently not taken into consideration, thus leading to their record on werewolves to be inadequate, which resulted in several attacks and failure to arrest the culprits.
Modern governments would ostensibly consider some of the actions of the Ministry to be cruel and inhumane. Under the direction of Minister Cornelius Fudge, trials were short and did not employ juries; instead, a Wizarding Council heard every case regardless of what prior knowledge they had of this case, it was unlikely to be able to appeal the verdict and lawyers were not allowed. It is likely that conditions have improved with the new administration. During Hagrid's appeal case before the Committee for the Disposal of Dangerous Creatures, the executioner (Walden Macnair) was present with his axe before a verdict was even decided on, and mostly the Committee's decisions are influenced by Lucius Malfoy, who threatens and intimidates the members into doing his bidding.
During Bartemius Crouch Senior's tenure as the Head of the Department of Magical Law Enforcement, he legalised the usage of the Unforgivable Curses, underwent the principles of fighting violence with violence, kill rather than capture, attack first and ask questions later, and imprison many suspects without trials. His cruel and ruthless methods made him as bad as the Death Eaters he sought to defeat, and has corrupted the magical community at large, as they came to believe he was doing the right thing, and that there was no other method to win the war. However, Crouch was seemingly more worried about his own reputation and rise of rank than genuine justice, as he sentenced his son to a life term in Azkaban despite ambiguous evidence of the situation that his son was allegedly involved in, and tried (unsuccessfully) to imprison Ludovic Bagman for unwittingly giving information to the Death Eaters, more so because he disliked the man than a proper sentencing. He even accepted a plea bargain from Death Eater Igor Karkaroff, releasing him from incarceration in exchange for information. It was only after the war has ended and the people finally managed to calm themselves from their savage approvals of Crouch's methodologies did they finally saw how cruel he was and socially shunned him for his corruption.
As a sign of corruption, Ministry officials tend to accepting plea bargains from criminals to advance what they deem progress in exchange for leniency, if not outright soliciting bribes. Known dealings are Barty Crouch Snr granting Igor Karkaroff parole in exchange for names of Death Eaters, Dolores Umbridge not prosecuting Willy Widdershins for Muggle-baiting in exchange for spying on a gathering of students, and Umbridge later releasing Mundungus Fletcher by accepting a bribe. Likewise, Cornelius Fudge has a tendency for being discreetly bribed by Lucius Malfoy's frequent donation of gold to important establishments to reveal classified information, delay certain laws, and return with undeserved gifts. Arcturus Black also bribed the Ministry with a huge sum of gold (officially written as "services to the Ministry") to undeservedly earn the Order of Merlin, First Class.
After the return of Lord Voldemort, the minister at the time, Cornelius Fudge, refused to believe that the evil wizard was back despite mounting evidence, and the Ministry even mounted a campaign to damage Harry Potter's credibility, an effort fuelled in part by Fudge's on paranoid fear that Albus Dumbledore wanted his job. Eventually, the Ministry was forced to acknowledge the emergency and act. Fudge was removed from office for incompetence and replaced by Rufus Scrimgeour.
Rufus became as bad as Crouch Snr, making scape goats locking the wrong people in Azkaban such as Stan Shunpike, to try and make it look like the Ministry was doing a good job. When he asked Harry to be a mascot so that the public would support them, Harry refused because he knew it was still corrupt.
After the Fall of the Ministry of Magic, the entire Ministry was under Voldemort and doing his bidding under the puppet government headed by Pius Thicknesse. The various laws implemented in this regime included in the persecution and harassment of Muggle-borns and Muggles and propaganda suggesting the inferiority of Muggles and how they should be treated as sub-humans by wizards. However, after Lord Voldemort's fall and Kingsley Shacklebolt being appointed minister, Harry, Ron, and Hermione work for the Ministry and change it in ways to make it drastically less corrupt.
Behind the scenes
- The British Ministry was the first wizarding government introduced in canon.
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (First mentioned)
- Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (film) (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (video game) (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film) (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (film) (Appears in flashback(s))
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (First appearance)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
- Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) (Appears in flashback(s))
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game)
- Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (video game) (Seen in memory)
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child
- Harry Potter and the Cursed Child (play)
- Harry Potter: A Pop-Up Book (Mentioned only)
- LEGO Harry Potter: Characters of the Magical World (Mentioned only)
- LEGO Harry Potter: Years 5-7
- Harry Potter for Kinect
- Harry Potter: The Character Vault
- Harry Potter: The Creature Vault(Mentioned only)
- Harry Potter: Hogwarts Mystery (mentioned only)
- Fall of the Ministry of Magic
- Andorran Ministry of Magic
- Bangladeshi Ministry of Magic
- Bulgarian Ministry of Magic
- Burkina Faso Ministry of Magic
- German Ministry of Magic
- Indian Ministry of Magic
- Iranian Ministry of Magic
- Mongolian Ministry of Magic
- New Zealand Ministry of Magic
- Norwegian Ministry of Magic
- Pakistani Ministry of Magic
- Wizards' Council
- The HP-Lexicon talks about the various departments in The Ministry of Magic
- MuggleNet page on The Ministry of Magic
Notes and references
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 Writing by J.K. Rowling: "Ministers for Magic" at Pottermore
- ↑ "Challenge mode tests wizarding skills" at the Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1 (video game) official site
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 7 (The Ministry of Magic)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 5 (Weasley's Wizard Wheezes)
- ↑ The Tales of Beedle the Bard - "Babbitty Rabbitty and Her Cackling Stump" - Footnotes
- ↑ Writing by J.K. Rowling: "The Magical Congress of the United States of America (MACUSA)" at Pottermore
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 20 (Lord Voldemort's Request)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Chapter 27 (Padfoot Returns)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 10 (Luna Lovegood)
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 1 (The Other Minister) - Cornelius Fudge says that the wizarding community was calling for his resignation for a fortnight and that he was sacked a three days ago. As the Battle of the Department of Mysteries was on the night of 18 June, 1996, a fortnight (14 days) after is 2 July, 1996.
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Chapter 22 (Owl Post Again)
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 8 (The Hearing)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 26 (Seen and Unforeseen)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 14 (Percy and Padfoot)
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Chapter 35 (Beyond the Veil)
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 1 (The Other Minister)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 5 (An Excess of Phlegm)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 1 (The Dark Lord Ascending)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 8 (The Wedding)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 11 (The Bribe)
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 12 (Magic is Might)
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Chapter 13 (The Muggle-Born Registration Commission)
- ↑ "J.K. Rowling Web Chat Transcript" on The Leaky Cauldron
- ↑ "Vieira, Meredith. "Harry Potter: The Final Chapter" Dateline (NBC) , 29 July 2007" on Accio Quote
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
- ↑ Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince